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FILM 2401 (33)


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York University
FILM 2401
Kispal- Kovacs Kovacs

Chapter 5 : The Coming of Sound NOTES 9pg.74-94) IMPACT ON ECONOMICS& ART OF THE MOVIES coming of sound = $$  cost of refitting both production facilities & exhibition facilities for the shooting & screening of synchronized sound was high expense of converting to sound & producing all film in sound by 1930 = further concentration of ownership & to ongoing disputes between the majors & independents (in production& exhibition Silent-to-sound changeover led to temporary decline in the overseas power of Hollywood& acted as an impetus for the development of growth of national cinemas in many countries (tried countering this by including multi-language productions)  Arrival of sound = the emergence of new genres & disappearance of others  Had tremendous effects on certain types of employment (thousands of musicians were fired+ boom for screenwriters  in order to keep rising costs down, the studios successfully fought to regain control over the stars THE STUDIO SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION MATURES oligopolistic ownership emerged “BIG FIVE”-produced motion pictures in production facilities they owned; they controlled distribution systems across the country & in other countries to get their product to market& owned many first-run movie theatres ”Little Three”: involved in production &distribution both couldn’t produce enough films to satisfy public demand THE COMING OF SOUND& GREAT DEPRESSION =important changes ; had 2 year holiday but in 1931 it hit hard & led to significant reorganization of the industries ;improve the value offered to the audience b-movies = more low-budget, formulaic films; which often acted as a training ground for new talent By mid 1930’s the American film industry was dominated by 8 companies & all had production facilities in Hollywood= they tightly controlled the film market by entering into agreements with each other & show other films and to set terms for independent movie owners JANET STAIGER: FILM STYLE & MODE OF PRODUCTION: identifies the period b/w 1919-1935 which the American film industry to one characterized as an advanced capitalist industry. Her argument: transition took long b/c of the expensive transition to s
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