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Feb 13- Agnes McPhail and Velma Demerson .pdf

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

February 13:Agnes McPhail and Velma Demerson Demerson: genetics and inter-racial marriages. McPhail: The 1920s and third parties. Reading: Bumsted, pp. 318-46, including embedded texts on The Bennett Buggy (p. 327), and Canada and the Refugees from Nazi Germany (pp. 334-5). - 1920s associated with prosperity —faced great economic difficulties - prosperity after the depression came from substantial growth in new housing construction and a great wave of consumer spending, both understandable after the war and subsequent depression - major expansion of consumer credit facilities to finance the new spending - an advertising industry quickly developed to promote consumerism - gambling, stock market, etc flourished - artificial internal boom - international markets, apart from US, were soft - traditional resource sectors of the economy had suffered most from worldwide fall in prices - ontarios economy really prospered, chiefly on the strength of the manufacture of the motor car both for domestic consumption and for sport into a british empire protecting itself against the americans - economy of maritimes continued to decline, since power revolution and new industrialization bypassed them while foreign markets continued to decline - the big one—radical & militant industrial union flourished in western canada - labour unrest after winnipeg was most prevalent in the geographical extremes of the country - miners in alberta and BC on strike—unions broken in some of most bitter labor violence that canada had ever seen - a number of movements, mainly regionally based, sprang up to protest inequalities in the national system - nobody felt harder done by after the great war than the farmer - farmers in canada disliked inflation and had 2 specific economic grievances beyond wheat price collapse - 1. wartime wheat marketing system had been abandoned by government in 1919 - 2. government had failed to introduce serious tariff reform to lower the costs of farming - farmer discontent was national in scope, western farmers were most alienated - new progressive party formed in 1920 and broke the two party tradition of conservatives and liberals - despite occasional farmer-labour alliances, the 2 major groups of malcontents were unable to unite politically for change - former liberals wanted free trade, farm protestors sought more radical reform - farm wing wanted to scrap the existing party system - sought instated to four son farmer grievances - the inexperienced farmer MPs were unable to accomplish anything substantial in Ottawa when economic conditions in western canada worsened - drought and world wide collapse of wheat prices began in 1921 and produced a widespread in a ability to meet mortgage payments - drybelt region was left to state because of unpaid taxes - its inhabitants went to cities or the US - surviving farmers became too disheartened to support a party that accomplished little so progressives disappeared - easterns wanted increased protectionism and lower railway freight rates - maritime rights movement —equitable freight rates and a series of particular provincial demands - resulted in widespread breig public agitation - working through the two party system achieved no more than the creation of a third party - inability of regional protests in maritimes and west to find common ground was palpable and significant as neither side could see beyond its regional interests - qubec pursued a nationalism that was at least partly a reaction against its increasing sense of isolation from the remained of canada - movement began with a crused to save french language, but shifted into border issues - survival of the traditional religion and culture in face of an ever materialistic environment - commitment to build the quebec economy, preparing for a future in which confederation would come to an end - stock market failed oct 1929—stock prices everywhere in NA collapsed - the depression was a cumulative result of worldwide fall in prices, which had never readjusted from the inflation of wartime and deflation of post war period - international inability to buy left canada, argentina, australia, with decreased orders for their products - the dollar fell and in 1931 so did a number of major canadian financial institutions, brokerage agencies, and insurance companies - country wouldn't recover until eruption of another war in 1939 - 1930s was always great depression as viewed by canadians - depression meant unemployment - farmers viewed as self-employed - unemployment in the depth sod the depression ran to more than 27% in the non agricultural sector - farmers had some land on which food could be grown - provincial governments tended to resound to the plight of the farmers, who made up substantial proportion of the - electorate in many provinces rural population few as member of farm families returned form city to family farm - the real victims of the depression were the urban unemployed, found relief because the great political football of the period - unemployment problem passed from provincial to municipal to support unemployment on decking revenue from property taxes that provided 80% of municipal revenue - usually credit vouchers to be redeemed at local stores rather than cash - cities often advertised single unemployed men to go elsewhere an paid their rail tickets out of town - bennett 1925—-legislation regulating working conditions, insuring against unemployment and extending credit to farmers - represented a growing realization by large arts of the Canadian business and professional communities that stabling the nations economy was necessary to prevent a more serious upheaval - many leading businessmen and financiers were in favour of state intervention, not so much because they believed in social justice as because they wanted economic stability for capitalism - radicalism was not necessarily confined to the traditional left, to be associated with organized labour, socialism, or communism - great fear was demagogue of any political persuasion would emerge, offering simple but final solutions to a frustrated electorate - most successful radical response came in alberta, where social credit party mobilized a population that had suffered hazily from drought and depression - C.H. Douglas advocated distributing money (social credit) to bridge the gap between production and consumption - social credit party - federal government opposed much of its original legislative program, particularly mortgage, debt and banking legislation - Bennett Buggy - symbol of the depression - originally an automobile with tongue and whiffletrees so horses could be hitched for economical motive power - as the depression continued parts were removed until just the chassis with its rubber tired wheels remained - engine, transmission and radiator removed the front seat moved forward until it was between strong wheels - pulled easier than wagons with steel rimmed wheels - maurice duplessis took a program of government intervention to redistribute wealth, protect farmers and workers and regulate large coloration within the context of christian law of justice and charity - took an emphasis upon economic nationalism that called for liberation from colonial oppression through agrarian reform, new labour legislation, the promotion of small industry commerce and the destruction of the great financial establishments of the province - his success in office relied on a nationalistic concern for provincial autonomy in federal provincial regulations, anti communism, calculated paternalistic grants and patronage for the disadvantaged - cooperative commonwealth federation (ccf)—coalititon of farmers organizations, labour unions, labour socialists parties in the four western provinces - unemployment relief camps in BC where unemployed young men found their only refuge—camps were degrading - strikers didnt cause trouble until authorities involved themselves causing violence and breaking people and property trying to stop the confrontations - 1919 canada transition from frontier nation to modern industrial state - urbanization advanced while rural (agricultural) society declined in importance - the traditional family unit seemed under attack - technology altered communication and transportation and entertainment - 1914-1915 lull between 2 rounds of massive immigration - exclusionary policies seemed increasingly in vogue - main task
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