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HIST 2600 (2)

Enduring Vision Ch 3

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York University
HIST 2600
Marc Egnal

Chapter 3 - The Emergence of Colonial Societies – 1625-1700 - Chesapeake Society: referring to the two English colonies in Virginia and Maryland - New England: Plymouth - English had 4 main colonies: New England, the Chesapeake, Carolina and the Middle Colonies Chesapeake Colonies: - Tobacco helped Chesapeake colonies to prosper; at first, it was a hard life but it wasn’t until large amounts of land was taken from the Indians and black slaves were brought in that these colonies started making money - Virginia: had the first elected assembly; during the 1650s, the assembly split into two: the elected House of Burgesses and the appointed Governor’s Council; adopted England’s county-court system: royal governor appointed justices of the peace that acted like judges, set the local tax rates, paid county officials, and oversaw the construction/maintenance of roads; Church of England officially established church - Beginning in the 1630s, land wasn’t granted to joint-stock companies; land instead was given to English politicians as rewards - Maryland: land granted to Lord Baltimore – he had pretty much control over everything except that all laws had to be approved by an elected assembly and the Crown controlled war and trade; wanted Maryland to be a refuge for Catholics (who weren’t allowed to worship in public in England), but this didn’t really happen – too many Protestants settled in first; Baltimore also tried to establish an old English manor system -> each manor lord would have a church on his property and he would employ a Catholic priest and ppl would come to his manor to hear mass; totally didn’t happen – by 1675, all the lands which would have the manors were plantations; Act of Religious Tolerance passed in 1649 to calm the tensions b/w the Protestants and the Catholics over the use of a chapel – but this didn’t really help, in 1654, there was an uprising, Governor ousted, Protestants repealed the Tolerance Act, the Governor tries to fight back but gets imprisoned and 3 catholic leaders hung; Lord Baltimore restores control in 1658, but religion still continues being a big problem in Maryland - Women had some power b/c they were so little of them in the New World; able to negotiate marriage – eg. Female servant who marries rich plantation owners; widows had some property rights – men wrote their wills so the wife can have complete control over the estate which then can be passed on to their children; economic independence - High death rate in the Chesapeake society; diseases; servants especially died at a fast rate; less than 70% lived to be 50 - Not enough women and high death rate = slow population growth; especially compared to New England - Most homes around the waters b/c of the plantations; lived in isolated groups - Few planters become wealthy from the head-rights system (got land and labour) and soon indentured servants found it hard to get their own land; by 1650s, most land close to the river already taken by large planters and upward mobility was almost impossible Bacon’s Rebellion 1675-1676 - Tensions between Indians and whites escalating; Indians had agreed to stay within their boundaries but they weren’t happy; white freedmen trying to get more land – usually by illegally using Indian land; both sides not happy - Those in power try to keep the peace b/c they were in a profitable fur trade w/ the Indians - Dispute b/w Indians and a Virginia farmer escalates – 14 Indians killed and 5 chiefs executed - Governor William Berkeley agrees to look into defending the frontier w/ forts but farmers prefer to just kill off the Indians; farmer elect Nathaniel Bacon (distant relative of Berkeley) to lead them – they find friendly Indians but kill them anyways; comes back and asks to go exterminate all the Indians; “Bacon’s troops can seize any enemy property and enslave Indian prisoners”; G. Berkeley changes his mind and calls the troops back – they get mad and burn Jamestown - Turned into a social rebellion; rebellion stops b/c Bacon died in late 1676 - Bacon’s Rebellion: uprising that showed deep stresses within the Virginia colony Race in Virginia - Developed in 3 stages: 1619-1640: blacks and whites kept to themselves; blacks were slaves but not for life; some Africans gained freedom and even owned land; by 1640s: blacks and Indians were slaves and their children inherited the status also; not on the same level as indentured white servants; after 1660s: slavery legally defined as a lifelong inheritable status based on colour; by 1705, strict legal codes define the place of slaves in society - Helped create a common and exclusive identity among whites - Slavery grew slowly but by 1700, slaves were almost ¼ of the Chesapeake population - After 1690s, Africans taken from West African interior (no knowledge of English, English ways, unlike the ones prior to 1690s, who were taken from closer to the ports – where the English had colonies) – contributes to rising racism CHECKING IN  A cash-crop economy set Chesapeake society apart from New England  Maryland – intended to be a land for Catholics but became mainly Protestant  Tobacco played a major role in shaping the economy and living conditions in Chesapeake  Bacon’s Rebellion – social and economic movement that started off as an anti-Indian campaign  Slavery occurred in stages Puritanism in New England: - Plymouth colony – established in 1620 - 1630 – the Great Migration by the Puritans; close to 21,000 newcomers; established the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven and Rhode Island - Puritan leaders wanted the colonies to be based on social and religious ideals; it will be “a city upon a hill” -> everyone’s eyes on us - Religious prosecution in England so they decided to come to the New World; in 1628, several Puritan merchants get a charter to settle north of Plymouth – “Massachusett’s Bay Company”; want to be self-governed - A city upon a hill: John Wintrop’s (Governor) vision of the Puritan settlement in New England as a model for the world - Most of the ppl who came over were land-owning farming families; no indentured servants/slaves - Political system = any adult male church member was allowed to vote (in England, you needed to owe land which meant only 30% of the population got to vote); General Court, w/ an appointed Governor’s Council as the upper house and 2 delegates from each town as the lower house - Didn’t have bishops, but had male “saints”; they voted for ministers, elected elders to handle finances and decided who were saints - The “New England Way”: Puritan orthodoxy that was supposed to govern the Massachusetts Bay colony - Education a big deal; especially b/c you had to learn to read the Bible by yourself; so children were taught to read at a young age -> even passed an Act where each town (50+ households) had to have a teacher and bigger towns (100+ households) had to prepare students for university - All adults had to attend service and pay tithe (1/10 of something) to support their local church -> this made it an established religion in Massachusetts - Roger Williams: dissenter seen as a threat to the New England Way; eventually banished in 1635 and he founded Rhode Island in 1647; he believed that the church should be free of state control; government should stay out of religious matters; also opposed mandatory church service and interference w/ private religious beliefs b/c he believed “the state would eventually corrupt the church and its saints” - Anne Hutchinson: dissenter feared not only for her theology but also b/c she challenged gender roles; banished from Massachusetts; believed that too many ppl were thought to be saints based on their behavior; she argues that their creed stressed predestination, not good works; also believed the New England ministers were corrupt; her followers labeled “anti-nomians” – those who oppose the rule of law; brought to court – might have been freed if she didn’t have a communication w/ the Holy Spirit during the trial -___-; Puritans didn’t believe in personal revelation -> Anne gets banished and then there were new restrictions on women’s independence and equality - Each town had a meeting hall in the centre – local administration - Lived in tightly clustered settlements; can keep an eye on each other; foster social reciprocity - Women had legal protection in terms of being able to leave a failed marriage (spousal violence/nonsupport) but by English law, they had no property rights so they had no other way but to stay - Low death rates b/c it’s colder so disease don’t spread as much; access to land = healthy diets; equal parts women/men came over so population grew naturally - Mostly farmers but also had lumbering, fishing and rum distilling -> all helped economy and New England prospered; - Merchants had a hard time b/c of the religious ideals; weren’t allowed to make a profi; rule that you cannot sell anything above 5% of its original cost; all part of the New England struggle to keep Puritan ideology; people also no longer lived in small groups of towns, so it was hard to keep everyone together in a community – city on the hill becoming an individualist society; 2 generation Puritans also not so willing to follow their parents - Half-Way Covenant: law to admit non-saints to church membership; mstor blow to New England Way; the church only baptized children of saints so 1 gen Puritans who didn’t want their grandchildren not be baptized created the Half-Way Covenant where children of all baptized members, including non-saints, to be baptized; they just couldn’t take communion and vote in church affairs - Expansion and Native Americans: Indian populations killed off by waves of epidemics; close to 80% dead by the first wave; many were converted to Christianity and lived in ‘prayer towns’ on reserves; but English continue pushing inland; Indian resistance crushed and by 1637, Connecticut and New Haven were established on these cleared lands; land cleared by the colonists also altered the ecosystem that the Indians depended on; food and medicines couldn’t grow; English livestock ruined cornfields, shellfish gathering sites, native grasses (which was then replaced by English varieties) ; some indig turned to alcohol and Christianity - King Philip’s War: last major war between Indians and New England settlers; reduced Indian population by almost 40%; ended Indian resistance; Metacom (“King Philip”) organized 2/3 of Indians into an army; kill about 2500 colonist and wipes out 12/90 New England towns; the next year, the colonists retaliate by destroying food supplies, selling hundreds of captives to slavery – 5000 indians either died in battle or starved to death Salem Witchcraft 1691-1693 - Salem, Massachusetts; Salem Village – district north of Salem Town - Rich/poor divide: those who lived in the eastern section had richer farming soil and benefited from Salem Town’s commercial expansion; those who lived on the western part didn’t share this prosperity and lost the political influence they once had - > most of these ‘witches’ were rich - In late 1691, several girls start behaving strangely and villagers believe its witchcraft; these girls name 2 local white women and a black slave as witches - “a disproportionate number of the accused witches in New England were women who had inherited or stood to inherit more property
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