Oct 2 - Developmental Perspectives on Gender .pdf
Oct 2 - Developmental Perspectives on Gender .pdf

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York University
Human Rights and Equity Studies
HREQ 1920
Elizabeth Brule

Developmental Perspectives on Gender Readings: Sigmund Freud, “Femininity,” [KIT]; in kit~ ▯ David M. Buss, “Psychological Sex Differences through Sexual Selection” p. 2-6 [Reader] Notes: [2] • Evolution psychology predicts males & females will be same/similar in all domains in which theyve faced similar adaptive problems [3] • They both have to face environmental and food consumption problems • Face different adaptive problems in different domains • Women child birth (cervix dilates) • Men information processing dilemma of if their child is actually their since they cannot view fertilization • Women information processing dilemma of reliable food source during pregnancy • Choose men who can provide for their family and provide food resources • (if cant solve this problem then they eventually fade out and die) • Evolutionary psychologist ---likelihood that both sexes are psychologically identical in domains theyre confronted with in different adaptive problems are unlikely • Key Question • In what domains have women and men faced different adaptive problems What are the differentiated psychological mechanisms of women and men that have • evolved in response to these sex differentiated adaptive problems? • Which social, cultural and contextual inputs moderate the magnitude of expressed sex differences? Sexual Selection defies the primary domains in which the sexes have faced different adaptive challenges • Evolution with natural science • Sexual selection is the casual process of the evolution of characteristics on the basis of reproduction advantage (as opposed to survival advantage) • Sexual selection: • Same-sex competition for access to mates: Members of one sex can successfully outcompete members of their own sex in a process of intrasexual competition (greater size, strength or social skill can evolve through reproduction & increasing more desirable mates) • Preferential mate choice: Members of one sex can evolve preferences for desirable qualities in potential mates through the process of intrasexual selection (if alto of people prefer one quality...people will reproduce with people charactering that characteristic and people who dont have that will fade away) [4] Hypotheses about psychological sex differences follow from sexual asymmetries in mate selection and intrasexual competition • Paternity Uncertainty: • Men can never be sure their child is actually theirs since fertilization happens within the women • Identifying reproductively valuable women • Men must find ways to measure if women are fertile because theyre fertility window is open shorter than males ---shortage of fertile women • Gaining sexual access to women: • The more offspring you can produce with as many women, the better. More successful you are at gaining access and allowing your genes to continue on. Men that werent allowed access eventually died out • Identifying men who are willing to invest • If women could produce with men willing to invest resources this would help as theyre offspring would produce and be successful. If a women didnt have this ability and blindly went with men unable to provide for the family, theyd eventually die off. [5] Psychological sex differences are well documented empirically in the domains predicted by theories anchored in sexual selection • Sex differences in the intellectual and cognitive ability domains tend to be small • Exception: hunting...skill differentiates • Big differences in sexes regarding casual sex • Men desire it ---seeking sexual access to a variety of partners • Women desire physical protection more than men [6] • Men are more sexual • Women more emotional • Differences do exists Conclusion • Strong sex differences occur reliably in domains closely linked with sex and mating • No sex can be deemed inferior or superior to another bc each sex posses mechanisms designed to deal with its own adaptive challenges • Sexual selection can be manifested and change throughout time Everyone is knowledgeable about sex and their differences, so to try to lie and change it to the • status quo wont work since no one is blinded and unknowledgeable when it comes to this information [7] • Evolutionary psychologist guide investigators to the particular domains in which the most pronounced sex differences and similarities will be found ▯ ▯ Tutorial Notes: • Freud during victorian era • Femininity through male perspective • Freud deals with heterosexuals • Exam question: these two psychological theorists have stated that our sexual dispositions as men and mown have a lot to do with how we behave and go through life. Do you think that we are strictly predisposed to these behaviours based on or biological and evolutionary past or have we constructed a culture where male and female sex differences can be altered and redefined? If so, how has culture changed these biological dispositions that Buss and Freud have extensively described? (nature vs nurture essentially) • Nurture -- women have more choices (lesbian, to work, not to work, monogamy, bear a child or not to) • cultures shape the values and ideals of an individual and how their nature will prevail • Agents of institution and socialization affect raising and culture • Community acceptance Norms • • Activism/legislation/movements Past view Masculinity Femininity active passive superior inferior Intellectual emotional Providers / independent Dependent ▯ • How a boy becomes a man: • initially infatuated with his penis • Occasionally fantasizes of having his mother • Differentiates between his mom/sister and them not having a penis (recognizes sexual difference) • Harbours feelings of resentment for the father • Build on anxiety in them self that their father will castrate them for having desires for the mother ---castration anxiety • Repress feelings or desires for the mother -- stores in unconscious • The boy sees the mother castrated
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