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Chapter

Village to Empire 32-48.docx

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Department
Humanities
Course Code
HUMA 2105
Professor
Sarah Blake

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ROME’S FIRST CENTUREIS EMERGENCE OF AN URBAN COMMUNITY  Situated on hills overlooking Tiber River (defence)  Plentiful water  The Capitol, the Palatine, the Velia – three hills  Drained in 7 and 6 C. – became the ‘Forum Romanum’ (Roman Forum)  Political/religious center  ‘Forum Boarium’ – chief market/harbour  Earliest traces of settlement – 1000 – burials  Early hamlets of huts shared cemeteries  No linked common identity  After c. 800 – community evolving  Esquiline ‘necropolis’ – Rome’s chief cemetery  7 and 6 C. first graves appear  Greek potter at Forum Boarium – indicates contact with distant places & fulfilling its role  ‘Ara Maxima’ – alter dedicated to Heracles (Latin, Hercules)  Cult may have been established here during 8 C.h th  Northern slopes of Palatine hill – mid 8 C. clay well  675-550, three successive stone walls followed  Sign of increasing united community  Part of Forum Romanum cleared for communal events th  ‘Regia’ erected along edge – 7 C.  ‘Comitium’ – public space – officials summoned citizens to vote, heal legal cases, make/inform public decisions  ‘Curia Hostilia’ - meeting place for council of elders – ‘senate’ rd  ‘Sacra Via’ – chief processional route of city, paved, last 3 of 6 C.  Temples to Gods  2 quarter of 6C. first temple (dedicated to Fortuna)  Decorations representing Hercales and Athena  Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus – Capitoline hill – beginning of 6 C.th th  6 C. may have protected city with fossa (dirt pit) and agger (dirt wall)  7 C. – evidence of wealthy Romans displaying wealth  Atria (atrium –singular) – reception rooms & other rooms grouped around enclosed gardens  End of 6 C. dwellings spread over most hills, Rome became one of the largest cities in Italy THE ROMANS AND THEIREARLY HISTORY  Active tradition of history writing  7 supposed kings th  Romulus `the Roman`-8 C. date attributed to foundation of Rome  Numa Pompilius – set pattern for religious life th nd  Servius Tullius (6 king) – 2 founder of Rome  Tarquinius Superbus – last king, fall marks the end of monarchy (justified fall)  Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27B.C) scholar – thought date of Romulus` foundation – 753  Historians of Rome presented it in a fashion ignoring or minimizing influence of neighbours and allies  Greeks taught how to write histories  Historians should compose accounts of a single, significant event –war  Or record a city`s history from its foundation to the author`s own day  Or should describe in general the history of the civilized world  First two are popular amongst Roman authors  Entertain readers - Offered vivid, dramatic stories  Instruct readers - Focused on leading individuals, situations faced, and effects of their actions on their city  Quintus Fabius Pictor (c. 200) – 1 Roman historian, offered account in Greek of foundation to own day  Marcus Porcius Cato the elder – first prose history in Latin – ‘Origins’  Often incorporated segments of others works  Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43)  Titus Livius (59 B.C. – A.D. 79)  Pontiffs – one group of priests – maintained a year-by-year account of significant events – ‘pontificial annals’  Included ‘will of the gods’  Roman historians relied on interpretations of old texts in works of earlier writers  When Roman and (later) Greek historian recounted Rome’s early history imagined leaders initiating and performing practices that would later be typical of officials  Trench dug around ‘Conitium’, deposits –mundus  ‘Pomerium’ – behind the wall (post murum) - line marking course of wall  Roman historians felt free to invent parts of their narratives, guidelines followed  Project into the past the attitudes and practices of author’s own day, believing their city’s essentials were unchanging  Believed functioned socially, and politically he same, with same values  From the 6 C. onwards, the main outlin
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