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Chapter 1

ITEC 1000 Chapter 1: Chapter 1 ITEC 1000 EXTENDED

Information Technology
Course Code
ITEC 1000
Paul Kashiyama

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Chapter 1: Computers and Systems Textbook Notes
- A IT sste osists of oe or ore oputer sste’s; ultiple oputer sstes are
connected using some type of network interconnectivity. As a matter of necessity, network
interfaces must conform to standard agreements, knowns as protocols, for message to be
uderstood  oth oputer durig essage ehage etwee a pair of oputer’s.
- The work performed by an individual computer system within the IT system can be characterized
by input, processing and output. This characterization is often represented by the INPUT-
- The components of an individual computer system consist of processing hardware, input devices,
output devices, storage devices, application software, and operating system software.
- The task of the operating system to provide overall control of the individual system, including
management of input, output, and file storage functions.
- The medium of exchange, both with users and between computers within a larger system, is data.
- The computer hardware, which provides the physical mechanisms to input and output data, to
manipulate and process data, and to electronically control the various input, output and storage
- The software, both application and system, which provides instructions that tell the hardware
exactly what tasks are to be performed and in what order.
- The data that is being manipulated and processed. This data may be numeric, it may be
alphanumeric, it may be graphic, or it may take some other form, but in all cases, it must be
representable in a form that the computer can manipulate.
- The communication component, which consists of hardware and software that transport
programs and data between interconnected computer systems.
- The hardware and system software components make up the architecture of the computer
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- The communication component connects individual computer systems together
- The data component and the application software, while fundamental to the operation of the
computer system, are supplied to the computer system by the user or vendor, rather than being
a part of the architecture of the computer system itself.
- Hardware Component
o Input/Output devices
o Storage devices
o CPU Central Processing Unit
ALU: arithmetic/logic Unit
CU: control Unit
Interface Unit
o Memory
Short-term storage for CPU calculations
- ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit) performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations
- CU (Control Unit), controls the processing of instructions and the movement of internal CPU data
from one part of the CPU to another
- Interface Unit, which proves program instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware
- A Bus is simply a bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components
- RAM (Random Access Memory): Primary storage, Main Memory working storage
- The smallest addressable size of the cell in most current computers is 8 bits, known as a byte of
memory. 8 bits of memory can only hold 256 different patterns
- Software Component
o Software consists of the programs that tell the computer what to do
- Two Major categories of Software: System Software and Application Software
- System Software helps you manage your files, to load and execute programs, and do to accept
your commands.
- The system software programs that manage the computer are collectively known as an operating
system, and differ from the application programs, such as Microsoft Word, or Firefox
- The operatig sste’s appliatio prograig iterfae API, ats as a iterfae for
application programs and utilities to access the internal services provided by the operating
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