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Chapter

Class Assignment #5 - Computer Crime
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Department
Natural Science
Course
NATS 1700
Professor
Dov Lungu
Semester
Winter

Description
Class Assignment #5 - Computer Crime Power Point • Computer Crime is accomplished through knowledge or use of computer technology • Computers can be used: • As the target of the crime • Electronic trespassing • Software piracy • Sabotage • To facilitate an other crime • Fraud, forgery, crimes against children Malicious Destruction • Malware / Malicious Software: • Viruses - a software program that can harm files or program to which it attaches itself (modifies or overwrites) - can spread ONLY with human assistance • Worms - a virus that can copy itself quickly and spread from one computer to another WITHOUT human assistance (consumes system memory disallowing it to respond to requests) • Allows malicious users to control other computers remotely • Time (logic) bombs - infection programmed to appear on certain date or ran certain amount of times • Trojan horses - appears to be good program but is coded with virus or worm • Botnets - collection of software robots that run on may computers, eternally controlled (zombie computers) • Searches for weak passwords and propagates it Sends spams, fraud, data theft, cyber attacks (denial of service) on one target • • Amplify and automate effects of viruses • Ex. / ZeuS (4 mil. Comp in US) - Key-logging & fake html forums to steal usernames, pass- words, account #s, creditcard #s (can buy kits online) Stealing Employees: • • Insurance companies make phoney accounts and make claims • Financial institutions transfers money to swiss banks than disappear • Fake purchase orders from fake companies and cash the checks • Steal data and sell it Identity theft (white collar crime) • • Using someones personal information to takeover accounts, fraudulent applications (credit card, loans, purchases) via hacking, spyware, phishing, discarded information, theft (dumpster diving) • Easy credit, bad application verification, easily obtained ID, bad security / law enforcement, poor penalties • Cyber freedom or cyber security Hackers • Initial meaning : to hack - to cut through thick foliage Later meaning: to hack - attempt to make use of technology in original, simple yet highly inventive • ways going against the rule • Can hack anything that presents a challenge to intelligence • Answering machines , Telephone lines , Traffic lights , Tv broadcasts • Computer and computer networks • Computer hackers are generally used for all groups • Two groups of hackers: Old school hackers New school hackers (crackers) -1960s - Coders and virus writers: write mali- - tinkering and showing their programming cious software but let others intro it to - Being close to internal computer which they understand networks - Ethical / no criminal intent - Ideological and militant in 1980s - Cyber vandals: download ready made - Claim to be real hackers,compared to crackers-> viruses & launch them / hack into systems & disrupt them Ethical principles: - access to computers should be unlimited - Profession criminals: break into system - Information should be free to steal / sell info or control botnets - Mistrust authority - promote decentralization - Create art on a computer - Cyber terrorist: damage out of ideologic- - Computers make lives better al reasons Todays real hackers: - expose security vulnerabilities in our computer systems that could stop civilization - Dont engage in viruses or denial of service - Share knowledge with authorities • Most hackers/ crackers engage in crimes from trespassing / cyber vandalism and cyber terrorism RECAP • Hackers are a subculture of the information society • Some engage in criminal / terrorist activites • Others challenge our sociotechnological reality ****QUESTIONS: - is all subversion of authority and criminal resistance bad? - yes? - Who should fight the way technology is used? - government and the people - Who should expose the dangers of information age? - government and the people - Do those who control technology dispose of disproportionate power? - no bc now they have more power - Do we need new institutions to control and direct technological development? - yes unbiased ones - Do hackers do a public service by finding and publicizing computer security and weaknesses? - yes if they just report it and dont take advantage of the weaknesses they can create a more secure society Sara Baase - Crime st • 21 century work from personal computer (PC) or laptop • Computers and the internet make many activities easier for us and also illegal activities easier for crim- inals • Hacking - intentional, unauthorized access to computer systems • Hackers break into computer systems and intentionally release computer viruses, stealing sensitive per- sonal business and government information • Steal money, crash web sites, destroy files and distrust business • Phase 1 : [the early years] 1960s - 1970s when hacking was a positive term • Programming and coding for fun • Create computer games and operating systems • The early hackers most sought knowledge and intellectual challenges ands sometimes the thrill of going where they did not belong • The new hacker dictionary describes a hacker as a person who enjoys exploring the details of pro- grammable systems and how to stretch their capabilities...on who programs enthusiastically • Hacking as a clever circumvention of imposed limits, these limits can be technical limits of the sys- tem on is using, limits that someone elses security techniques impose, legal limits, or the limits of ones skills • Phase 2: 1970s-mid 1990s- when hacking took on its more negative meanings The word hacking took on its most common meaning today: breaking into computers on • which the hacker does not have authorized access • floppy disks hacking also included spread computer viruses, then mostly in software traded on • Hacking behaviour included pranks, thefts (of information, software and money) phone phreaking (manipulating the telephone system) • Hackers obtained passwords by sophisticated techniques and by social engineering: fooling people into disclosing them • Using programs called sniffers, they read information traveling over the internet and extracted pass- words • Adult criminals began to recognize the possibilities of hacking; thus, business espionage and signet thefts and frauds joined the list of hacking activities in the 80s and 90s • Internet worm - doesnt destroy files or steal passwords and there was disagreements about whether morris intended or expected it to cause the degree distribution it did • Phase 3: beginning in the mid 1990s, with the growth of the web and of ecommerce and the participa- tion of a large portion of the public online - the growth of the web • Mid 90s intricate interconnectedness of the web and increased use of the internet for email /sensit- ivity information, and for economic transactions made hacking more dangerous and damaging and more attractive for criminal gangs • Kind of accessible information expanded to include credit reports, consumer profiles, medical re- cords, tax records, confidential business information • Hacking for political motives increased • Global web = global hacking • Denial of service attack - hackers overload The target site with hundred of thousands
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