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NATS 1760- OIL.docx

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Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1760
Darrin Durant

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SC NATS 1760 DARRIN DURANT/ JAMES ELWICK Monday, October 15, 2012 What Blinds Us All Pg. 49- 56  A call for a “green revolution,” a new world order of “clean tech” that shall bring us into “energy independence”- it is essential for two reasons: 1) economic advance in the developing world 2) advent of dangerous climate change  energy use is what binds us most immediately to the world around us, to our style of living, and to each other as well  Scientifically, energy is defined as “the capacity to do work” (work= force x distance)  The three laws of thermodynamics: 1) You can‟t get something for nothing  energy can be transferred from one system to another but never created or destroyed; it is always conserved 2) You can‟t break even energy transfer is an irreversible process and always involved some losses, expressed by an increase in the disorder, or entropy of a system 3) You can‟t get out of the game there is such a thing as absolute zero, where all atomic movement ceases, but it‟s unattainable  Energy in society is about transformation- creating, building, altering, moving and demolishing things  have inevitable limits- should not be avoided, cannot be 100% efficient but can try to raise performance to improve its efficiency  energy has a material basis – the use of a substance(fossil fuels, flowing water or air, enriched uranium, sunlight, volcanic fluids)  Resources contain the issue of availability, costs, impact and sustainability  Three factors that contribute to special historical moments: 1) the new oil shock( and what it means) 2) modernization in developing countries 3) climate change  The era of fossil fuels, while still dominant and likely to expand is in transition  greater energy diversity, multiple and flexible resources, advanced technology and new forms of government debate Our Energy Past: Does It Hold Any Lessons? Pg. 57-63  Fire- from coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear fuels, and bio-mass  Sun- for solar power and heating, for frying and warming  Wind- for electricity, mechanical work(mills), and movement(sails)  Flowing water- for electricity and work(mills)  Animals- in the inorganic form, as machines  Coal had three things in its favour: 1) it was plentiful in easily accessible areas 2) it could be transported rapidly by water to any port 3) it burned with a flame as hot or hotter than charcoal  coal was taken up by a range of industries in London particularly and eventually in households  coal proved as a source of heat and an origin of innovation  to reduce unwanted effects on everything from bread to metal with various impurities, users were forced to improve existing ovens and furnaces to prevent direct contact with coal gases  Steam became an area of invention- it was viewed as the moving power of water in vapor form  became „the power of civilization” and coal the fuel of economic, military, technological and industrial expansion  Coal‟s uptake had to substitute for an existing resource- it had to replace and entire infrastructural system  A small group of entrepreneurs led by George Bissell saw an opportunity in “rock oil”  using distillation is generated a variety of substances- naphtha, lamp oil, paraffin, waxes, lubricants, tar- showing that petroleum represented a raw material from which “very val
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