Chapter 1 Notes:
• This case with Reena was brought to court, but many other episodes of
bullying are unreported causing young children to suffer alone.
• Physcoligists give tips on how such things do not happen in the future.
• Phycology- way of thinking, they provide knowledge that is accurate and
o “The study of the mind”
• Wilhelm Wundt professor that changed Pyscology from being connected to
philosophy and physiology, it became independent- founder oh Pyscology.
• Focus- awareness of immediate experience, being conscious.
o Became scientific study of conscious minds allowing it to focus on the
minds and mental process.
• G. Stanley Hall made America first research lab
• Structuralists examine and identify of what makes up the conscious
experience. Work in Lab
o Work included perception of vision, hearing and touch.
And how absorbed the info you get from doing these things.
• Functionalism researching the function and purpose of consciousness.
o Not the structure
o Intrested in behavior and how it goes with the world.
• This started to focus on other things such as mental testing, patterns of
development in kids, education, behavior differences between sexes.
o This got women to be in the field.
• John B Watson:
o Behaviorism- seeing behaviours directly.
o Thought that the thoughts of people are private therefore cant do a
• Nature vs. Nurture- Behaviour genetic or experience? Watson says that its not
genetic and that it is environment.
• Stimulus- input from environment, which reacts on light and sound waves. So
to our behavior reacts on the environment surrounding us. Stimulus
• Freud unconscious- has thoughts and memories that are below the surface
but still influence our behavior.
• Psychoanalytic theory- explains personality, motivation and mental disorders
• Suggestion that people don’t know their own minds very well and cant cope
with their sexual wantings.
• Psychoanalysis almost took over pyscology all together.
• B.F Skinner radical behaviourism- behaviourism and neo- behaviourism.
o Eternal mental events are too hard to studs, his study is focused more
on public observable events.
o Also says behavior is based on environment.
• Organisims repeat things that lead to positive outcomes rather than neutral or negative outcomes.
• Behavior is determined in predictable ways by general rules and therefore
people are controlled by the environment and not what is around them.
• Both behaviourism and psychoanalytic were criticized because it showed that
people are not in complete control of their own minds.
• Humanism emphasizes unique qualities of humans with their freedom and
o Cant use research on animals to explain humans.
• Abraham Maslow- behavior is in control of ones self and that humans want to
reach their highest potential.
• Clinical pyscology diagonises and treats of disorders and issues