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PSYC 1010
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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - Psychology is practical but also a way of thinking - As a science, it demands that researchers ask precise questions about issues and that they test their ideas through systematic observation - It provides a way of building knowledge that is relatively accurate and dependable KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 3-7) • Psychologyʼs intellectual parents were 19th-century philosophy and physiology, disciplines that shared an interest in the mysteries of the mind • Psychology became an independent discipline when Wundt established the first psychological research laboratory in 1879 at Leipzig, Germany. He defined psychology as the scientific study of consciousness The new discipline grew rapidly in North America in the late 19th century, as illustrated • by G. Stanley Hallʼs Career • Hall established Americaʼs first research lab in psychology and founded the American Psychological Association • The structuralists, led by Edward Titchener, believed that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements • The functionalists, inspired by the ideas of William James, believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness. Functionalism paved the way for behaviourism and applied psychology • Behaviourists, led by John B. Watson, argued that psychology should study only observable behaviour. thus they campaigned to redefine psychology as the science of behaviour • Emphasizing the importance of the environment over heredity, the behaviourists began to explore stimulus response relationships, often using laboratory animals as subjects From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed - Has developed from philosophical speculations about the mind into a modern science - Only a little over 100 years ago that it emerged as a scientific discipline A New Science Is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall - By the 1970ʼs, a small number of scholars in philosophy and physiology were actively exploring questions about the mind - Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), a German professor, mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of philosophy or physiology - 1879 - Wundt established the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig - 1881 - psychologyʼs “date of birth” - Wundt established the first psychological research journal - Wundt = founder of psychology - Wundt (1874) declared that the new psychology should be modeled after physics and chemistry --> methods psychologists used to investigate the mind had to be done as scientific as those of chemists or physicists Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - Psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience - kept psychology focused on the mind and metal processes - generated approx. 54 000 pages of books and articles in his career - 1883-1893 - some 24 new laboratories were established in USA and Canada - many of them were started by Wundtʼs students or by his studentsʼ students. - G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924), studied briefly with Wundt, primary contributor to the rapid growth of psych in America - Near the end of the 19th century - 1883 - established Americaʼs first research lab in psych at John Hopkins University - 1887 - launched Americaʼs first psych journal - 1892 - the driving force behind the establishment of the American Psychological Association (APA) and was elected its first president --> today the APA is the worldʼs largest organization devoted to advancement in psych The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism - Competing schools of thought exist in most scientific disciplines - In psych - first two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism - Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener (emigrated to U,S in 1892 and taught for decades at Cornell University) - Studied under Wundt but brought his own version of psych to America - Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related - Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensation, feelings and images - Most of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch - Structuralists depend on the method of introspection - the careful, systematic self- observation of oneʼs own conscious experience - limitations - if you solely depend on n individualʼs reflection to document phenomenon, there is no independent objective evaluation of that claim - Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure - William James = chief impetus - american scholar - James quickly became an intellectual giant in psych and his book “Principles of Psychology” became standard reading for generations of psych - perhaps the most influential text in psych history - Jamesʼs thinking illustrated how psychology is deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences - James noted that consciousness obviously is an important characteristic of our species. Hense, he contended that psych should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness - Argued that consciousness consists o a continuous flow of thoughts - Structuralists were looking at static points in that flow whereas he wanted to understand the flow itself which he called the “stream of consciousness” - Structuralists gravitated to the lab Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - Functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world around them - Instead of focusing on sensation and perception, functionalists such as James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey began to investigate metal testing, of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioural differences between the sexes. - Mary Washburn was the first women in USA to receive a Ph.D in psych -wrote “The Animal Mind” - Leta Hollingworth - did important works on childrenʼs intelligence - Mary Whiton Calkins - studied with William James - first female president of the APA - Functionalism fostered the development of behaviourism and applied psychology - both have dominated in modern psych Watson Alters Psychologyʼs Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut - Early 1900s - John B. Watson (1878-1958) founded behaviourism - Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour - proposing that psychologist abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly -the science of behaviour - Watson believed that the power of scientific method rested on the idea of verifiability - Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism - Watson asserted that psychologists could study anything that people do or say but they could not study scientifically the thoughts, wishes and feelings that might accompany these observable behaviours - Staked out an extreme position on the age-old debate of nature versus nurture - Watson downplayed the importance of heredity, maintaining that behaviour is governed primarily by the environment - The behaviourists came to view psychologyʼs missing as an attempt to relate overt behaviours (responses) to observable events in the environment (stimuli) --> a stimulus is any detectable input from the environment - Behavioural approach is often referred to as stimulus-response psychology - The gradual emergence of behaviourism was partly attributable to an important discovery made around the turn of the last century by Ivan Pavlov which provided insight into how S-R bonds are formed - Many psychologists thought that animals would make better research subjects - experimental research is often more productive if experimenters can exert considerable control over their subjects otherwise too many complicating factors enter into the picture and contaminate the experiment - In Germany opposition to behaviourism called Gestalt psychology - Gestalt psychologistsʼ primary concern was perception --> psych should continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behaviour - Sigmund Freud - contemplating the mysteries of unconscious mental processes Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 8-13) • Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician who invented psychoanalysis. His psychoanalytic theory emphasized the unconscious determinants of behaviour and the importance of sexuality • Freudʼs ideas were controversial, and they met with resistance in academic psychology. However, as more psychologists developed an interest in personality, motivation, and abnormal behaviour, psychoanalytic concepts were incorporated into mainstream psychology • The influence of behaviourism was boosted greatly by B.F. Skinnerʼs research. Like Watson before him. Skinner asserted that psychology should study only observable behaviour Working with laboratory rats and pigeons Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend • to repeat responses that lead to positive consequences and not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative consequences • Based on the belief that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli, Skinner argued in Beyond Freedom and Dignity that free will is an illusion. His ideas were controversial and often misunderstood • Finding both behaviourism and psychoanalysis unsatisfactory, advocates of a new theoretical orientation called humanism became influential in the 1950s. Humanism, led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, emphasized the unique qualities of human behaviour and humansʼ freedom and potential for personal growth • The first experimental laboratory in Canada was established at the University of Toronto in 1891 by James Mark Baldwin. Rapid growth in Canadian psychology has been evident over the last century Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture - Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Austrian physician - Freud treated people troubled with psychological problems with psychoanalysis - His work with patients and his own self-exploration persuaded Freud f the existence of what he called the unconscious - The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour - based this concepts on a variety of observations such as slips of the tongue and dreams - Concluded that psychological disturbance s are largely caused by personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level - His psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and metal disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour - Made the disconcerting suggestion that people are not masters of their own minds - Proposed that behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges - controversial - Carl Jung and Alfred Adler - prominent followers - 1909 - public recognition from psychology when G. Stanley Hall invited Freud to do a series of lectures Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - By 1920 - psychoanalytic theory was widely known around the world but continued to meet with resistance - most psychologists contemptuously viewed psychoanalytic theory as unscientific speculation that would eventually fade away - they were wrong - steadily gained credence in the culture at large - Forced psychologists to apply their scientific methods to the topics of personality, motivation, and abnormal behaviour Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes - Harvard, B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) - emerged as a central figure in behaviourism and the history of psych - Developed a system of radical behaviourism that represented a departure from earlier forms of behaviourism and neo-behaviourism - Did not deny the existence of internal, mental events but redefined them as private events and did not think that they should be given special status when explaining behaviour - Skinner emphasized how factors mould behaviour - Although he repeatedly acknowledged that an organismʼs behaviour is influenced by its biological endowment, he argued that psychology could understand and predict behaviour adequately without resorting to physiological explanations - fundamental principle of behaviour documented by Skinner: organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. - Skinner showed with lab rats and pigeons, that he could exert remarkable control over the behaviour of the animals by manipulating the outcomes of their responses - In his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity, he asserted that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli - behaviour is determined in predictable ways by lawful principles - according t Skinner, people are controlled by their environment, not by themselves - free will is an illusion - sparked controversy and was often misunderstood - behaviourism flourished as the dominant school of thought in psych during the 1950s and 1960s The Humanists Revolt - Many psychologists found the theoretical orientations of behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory unappealing - “dehumanizing” - Psychoanalytic Theory - attached for its belief that behaviour is dominated by primitive, sexual urges - Behaviourism - criticized for its preoccupation with the study of simple animal behaviour - many people argued that both schools of thought failed to recognize the unique qualities of human behaviour - Beginning in 1950s - new school of thought called humanism - Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - See Table 1.2 for key differences between six influential contemporary theoretical perspectives in psychology - - optimistic view of human nature - people are not pawns of either their animal heritage or environmental circumstance and because humans are fundamentally different from other animals, research on animals has little relevance to the understanding of human behaviour - Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)- most prominent architects of the humanistic movement - Rogers argued that human behaviour is governed primarily by each individualʼs sense of self or “self-concept” (animals lack this) - Both argued that to fully understand human behaviour, must take into account the fundamental human drive towards personal growth Psychology in Canada - G. Stanley Hall established the first experimental laboratory in psych in 1883 at John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. - The first experimental laboratory in the British Empire was established by James Mark Baldwin at the University of Toronto in 1891 - The first psych course offered at a Canadian University was likely at Dalhousie in 1838 - teaching of psych in canadian universities became more common in 1850s under philosophy department - first distinct academic department of psych was established at McGill University in 1924 - James Mark Baldwin accepted position at the university of Toronto where he established the first lab - major contributor to the literature in psych and was involved in founding the ASA in 1892 and several prestigious psychological journals - The Canadian Psychology Association (CPA) was formed in 1939 - few female students or professors in Canadian psych in the beginning but now are the majority in graduate programs in psych. - Few psychologist have made any more important contribution to psychology in Canada than Brenda Milner of McGill University - Has mad crucial contributions to our understanding of memory ad was one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada - See Figure 1.2 for three other women who have made significant
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