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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

HH PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY AND SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY MODULE 1 - Greek naturalist & philosopher Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality - in 1879, the first psychological laboratory was found by Wilhelm Wundt  seeking to measure “atoms of the mind” - Student, Edward Bradford Titchener, introduced the school of structuralism and functionalism which explored the basic elements of the mind using the method of introspection  proved to be unreliable - under the influence of Charles Darwin, William James( philosopher-psychologist) assumed that thinking was developed because it was adaptive  as a functionalist he encouraged explorations of emotions, memories, willpower, habits and consciousness - the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was Mary Whiton Calkins - the first female to receive a Ph.D. in psychology was Margaret Floy Washburn, who was the second APA and the author of The Animal Mind - psychology was defined at “the science of mental life”  later redefined as “the science of observable behaviours” BEHAVIOURISM: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour without reference to mental processes - Freudian psychology emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behaviour HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY: led by Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow, it focused on the ways current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential ( nature vs. nurture) - during the 1960’s a group of psychologists known as the cognitive revolution who’s interest was in the mental processed of how our mind perceives, processes and remembers information COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE: the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition PSYCHOLOGY: the science of behaviour and mental processes  behaviour as the action of observing and recording  mental processes as the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behaviour NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE: the controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours. - the Greek philosopher Plato assumed that we inherit character and intelligence, and that some ideas are inborn  Aristotle argued they come from sensory experiences NATURAL SELECTION: the principle that among the range of intertied traits, those contribution to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations (Charles Darwin) - nurture works on what nature endows  every psychological event is simultaneously a biological one Biological Influences: Psychological Infleunces: - natural selection of adaptive traits - learned fears/ other learned - genetic presdispositions responding to expectations enviornment - emotional responses - brain mechanisms - cognitive processing and perceptual - hormononal influences interpretations Behaviour/ Mental Process Social-CulturalInfluences: - presenceof others - cultural,societal,and familyexpectations - peerand othergroupinfluences - compellingmodels(media) PERSPECTIVE FOCUS Neuroscience How the body and the brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes Behaviour Genetics How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences Psychodynamic How behaviour springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Behavioral How we learn observable responses Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information Social- Cultural How behaviour and thinking vary across situations and cultures BASIC RESEARCH: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base APPLIED RESEARCH: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY: a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being CLINIAL PSYCHOLOGY: a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders PSYCHIATRY: a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY: a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups MODULE 2 - our thinking, memory, and attitudes operate on two level  conscious and unconscious - hindsight bias, judgmental overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense HINDSIGHT BIAS: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it  both common in children and adults - we humans think we know more than we do  more confident than correct - “rage of order” random sequences often don’t look random - putting a scientific attitude into practice requires not only curiosity and skepticism but humility  an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives CRITICAL THINKING: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; rather examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions - an experimenter intends a laboratory environment to be a simplified reality  one that stimulates and controls important features of everyday life – re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions - the purpose is to test theoretical principles  the visual system developed from experiments in artificial settings - psychological science focuses less on particular behaviours than on seeking general principles that help explain behaviours CULTURE: the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, D
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