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PSYC 1010 (6)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7- Human Memory.docx

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Humber College
PSYC 1010
Gerald Goldberg

Chapter 7- Human Memory Encoding- forming a memory code Storage- maintaining encoded information in memory overtime Retrieval- recovering information from memory stores Attention- focusing awareness on narrowed range of stimuli or events (crucial to encoding memories) - Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning - People have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on 2 or more inputs simultaneously - Divided attention can have negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of task (esp. task are complex/unfamiliar) - Human brain can effectively handle only one attention-consuming task at a time - Ability to answer question based on each type of processing is a function of several factors (ex: Circadian pattern, age) Craik + Lockhart - Different rates of forgetting occur b/c some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others - Incoming information can be processed at different levels Levels of processing theory- proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes - Structural encoding- relatively shallow processing that emphasis the physical structure of the stimulus - Ex: how they were printed, length of the words - Phonemic encoding- emphasizes what a word sounds like (involves naming/saying the words) - Semantic encoding- involves thinking about the objects + actions the words represent Elaboration- linking stimulus to other information at the time of encoding (semantic encoding can be enhanced) Imagery- creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered (can be used to enrich encoding) Dual coding theory- memory is enhanced by forming semantic + visual codes (since either can lead to recall) Self-referent encoding- deciding how or whether information is personally relevant - Enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration + better organization of information Atkinson + Shiffrin model of memory storage - Incoming information passes thru 2 temporary storage buffers (sensory store, short term store) before its transferred into long term store Sensory memory- preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time (usually fraction of second)- afterimage - Brief preservation of sensation in sensory memory gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli Short term memory (STM)- limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds - Limited in # of items it can hold - “Magical Number Seven, +/- 2” (ppl can recall about 7 items in tasks that required to remember unfamiliar material) - Might be lower “four +/- 1” - Capacity of STM has been overestimated b/c lack of prevention in covert rehearsal/chucking info Rehearsal- process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information - Without it, information in STM is lost in less than 20 seconds Theorists believed that loss of info from STM is b/c of time related decay of memory traces (inference also contributes) Chunk- group of familiar stimuli stored as single unit - To have this successful, subject must first recognize letters as familiar unit - This familiarity has to be stored somewhere in long term memory Working memory - Limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains + stores information by providing an interface btw perception, memory, action - Phonological loop- all of STM (ex: recitation to temporarily remember a phone #) - Visuospatial sketchpad- permits ppl to temporarily hold + manipulate visual images (ex: mentally rearrange furniture) - Central executive system- controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention + dividing attention as needed - Episodic buffer- temporary, limited capacity store that allows various components of working memory to integrate info + serves as an interface btw working memory + long term memory Working memory capacity (WMC)- ability to hold + manipulate information in conscious attention - Influenced by heredity - Can be reduced temporarily by situational factors (ex: pressure, worry) - Plays fundamental role in complex cognitive process + intelligence Long term memory (LTM)- unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time - Store information indefinitely + permanent - Forgetting occurs only b/c ppl sometimes cant retrieve needed info from LTM - Stimulation of temporal lobe sometimes elicited vivid descriptions of events long past Flashbulb memories- unusual vivid + detailed recollections of momentous events - Tend to be strong, vivid, detailed but they’re neither accurate nor special - Becomes less detailed + complete + often inaccurate - These memories are exceptionally vivid, exceptional confidence in their accuracy, emotional intensity ↑ in human Clustering- tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual hierarchy- multilevel classification system based on common properties among items (improves recall a lot) Schema- organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object/event abstracted from previous experience with object/event - Relational schema (typical events surrounding interpersonal interactions) maybe related to variety of disorders - Regularities in interpersonal experience - Affects way to process information about others, yourself, influence your expectation, and beliefs Semantic network- nodes of representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts - Knowledge seems to be organized into less systematic framework like semantic network - Useful in explaining why thinking about one word can make closely related word easier to remember - Spreading activation- activation spreads out along the pathways of semantic network surrounding the word - Strength of this activation decrease as it travels outward Connectionist/Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model - Assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks PDP - Consists of large network of interconnected computing units (nodes) that operate like neurons - Nodes maybe inactive or they may send either excitatory or inhibitory signals to other units - Assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks Connectionist network - Piece of knowledge is represented by particular pattern of activation across an entire network - Information lies in the strengths of the connections Tip of the tongue phenomenon - temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by feeling that it’s just out of reach - most people occurs once a week (increases w/age) - failure in retrieval - memories can often be jogged w/retrieval cues (stimuli that help gain access to memories) Encoding specificity principle- memory for info would be better when the conditions during encoding + retrieval were similar - Context cues often facilitate the retrieval of information - Special case: effects of matching the person’s internal state of encoding at retrieval phase - State-dependent memory effects are more readily observed for free recall conditions than for recognition or cued recall tests when retrieval cues are more abundant Distortion in recall can occur because subjects can reconstruct the tale to fit with their established schemas - Recall is often bias in direction of higher level schemas Misinformation effect- participants recall of an event they witness is altered by introducing post event information - In real life, eyewitnesses are often immediately asked to systematically recall an event before there is much opportunity to introduce misinformation When ppl retell stories, they tend to make # of adjustments that depend on their goals, audience, social context Reality monitoring - Process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perception of actual event) or internal sources (one’s thoughts + imagination) - When memories are rich in sensory information or contextual information or when memories can be retrieved with little effort, more likely to infer that the event really happened Source monitoring- making attributions about origins of memories Source monitoring error- memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Destination memory- recalling to whom one has told what - Memory for sources of info was better than destination memory - Destination memory is more fragile b/c when transmitting info people are self-focused on their message, leaving less attention capacity to devote to encoding whom one is talking with Forgettingcurve- graphs retention + forgetting over time - Most forgetting occurs very rapidly after learning something - When subjects memorize more meaningful material (prose, poetry) forgetting curves aren’t nearly as steep - Forgetting curves for autobiographical information are much shallower Retention- proportion of material retained (remembered) - Retention interval- length of time btw presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting Recall- subjects reproducing information on their own w/o any cues (essay Q’s, fill in blank) Recognition- subjects select previously learned information from an array of options (M/C, T/F) - Subjects’performance on recognition measure was superior to their performance on recall measure - Recognition tests are sensitive measure of retention - Excessively easy measures of retention (not always) Relearning nd - Subject memorizing info for 2 time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before Pseudoforgetting is due to lack of attention (ex: penny) Decay theory- forgetting occurs b/c memory traces fades with time (mere passage of time produces forgetting) - Contribute to loss of info from sensory + short term memory stores - Forgetting not dependent on time since lear
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