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Psychology 1010

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Gerry Goldberg
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 1010 Notes Chapter1-TheEvolutionofPsychology Philosophy, Physiology, and Psychology - The term psychology comes from two Greek words, psyche, meaning the soul, and logos, referring to the study of a subject - Not until the 18th century did the term psychology acquire its literal meaning, ‘the study of the mind.’ - Philosopher’s such as socrates, Plato, and Aristotle considered and debated issues issues of relevance to psychology, including such subjects as the separation of mind and body and whether knowledge is inborn (nativism) or gained through experience (empiricism). - Aristotle’s theory of memory is the foundation of many contemporary theories; suggested that memories are the result of three principles of association: similarity, contrast, and contiguity. - Descartes famously argued for the dualism of mind and body; that the mind and body were separate and fundamentally different - believed that process and functions such as memory, perception, dreaming, and emotions were ‘properties’ of the body, and thus open to being understood in the naturalistic terms. - Many date the emergence of psychology as a distinct discipline to the works of Wilhelm Wundt. A New Science is BornL The contributions of Wundt and Hall - Wilhelm Wundt mounted a campaign to make psychology an independent discipline rather then a stepchild of philosophy or physiology - In 1879 Wundt succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig; “Date of birth” for psychology 1879 - According to Wundt psychology’s primary focus was consciousness - the awareness of immediate experience. - In any case, although psychology was born in Germany, it blossomed into adolescence in America. The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus functionalism - In psychology the first two major schools of thoughts were structuralism and functionalism. - Structuralismwas based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related - Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensation, feeling and images - Most of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch - Dependent on the method of introspection; the careful, systematic self- observation of one’s own conscious experience - Limitations that were associated with the use of introspection were a factor that contributed to the demise of structuralism. - Functionalismwas based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. - William James major contributor of the emergence of functionalism - James’s landmark book Principle of Psychology is perhaps the most influential text in the history of psychology - James was interested with Charles Darwin’s concept of natural selection - NaturalSelectionheritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be ‘selected’ over time - James noted that consciousness obviously is an important characteristic of our species - He wanted to understand the flow itself, which he called the streamof consciousness - James McKeen Cattell and John Dewery began to investigate mental testing, patterns of development in children, the effectiveness of educational practices, and behavioural differences between the sexes. - This lead to women being interested in psychology. - Structuralism gravitates towards the laboratory functionalism are interested in how people adapt their behavior to the real world. - The impassioned advocates of structuralism and functionalism saw themselves as fighting for high stakes: the definition and future direction of the new science of psychology - Functionalism fostered the development of two descendants that have dominates modern psychology: behaviourismand appliedpsychology Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Makes its Debut - This school of thought was founded by John B Watson behaviourismis a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour - Proposes that you should abandon the study of consciousness all together and focus exclusively on behaviours that they could observe directly - mental processes we not a proper subject for scientific study because they are ultimately private events - behaviourrefers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism - psychology’s oldest and most fundamental questions: the issue of nature vs. nurture; if behaviour is determined by genetics or environment - Behaviourism believes that it is primarily governed by the environment - The behaviours eventually came to view psychology’s mission as an attempt to relate overt behaviours (‘responses’) to observable events in the environment (‘stimuli’). - A stimulusis any detectable input from the environment - Ivan Pavlov; trained dogs to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus such as a tone - Having deleted consciousness from their scope of concern behaviorists no longer need to study human subjects who could report their processes; now animals could be tested on Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture - PsychoanalyticTheoryattempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour - Sigmund Freud approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to treat mental disorders; psychoanalysis - His work with patients and his own self-exploration persuaded Freud of the existence of what he called the unconscious - TheUnconsciouscontains thoughts, memories, and desires tht are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour - He also proposed that behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges - Most psychologists contemptuously viewed psychoanalytic theory as unscientific speculations that would eventually fade away - The popularity of this theory forced psychologists to apply their scientific methods to the topics Freud had studied: personality, motivation and abnormal behaviour and therapy Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes - B. F. Skinner was influenced by Watson’s metholdogy on behaviourism and PAvlov’s experiment with the dogs which lead him to develop a system based on his philosophy; radicalbehaviourismthat represents a departure from earlier forms of behaviourism and neo-behaviourism - Behaviour is based on public observable events, although even they could be studied scientifically, he believed that there was little need to do so though - Emphasized how environmental factors mould behaviour - Fundamental principle; organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative response - According to Skinner people are controlled by their environment, not by themselves; free will is an illusion The Humanist Revolt - The principle charges hurled at psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism were that they were both ‘dehumanizing’ - They failed to recognize the unique qualities of human behaviour - Humanismis a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth - Carl Rogers and Braham Maslow; prominent architects of humanism - Rogers argued that human behaviour is governed primary on each individual’s sense of self - Humans are free rational beings with the potential for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession - Psychology is not all pure science, psychological work falls mainly within two domains of psychology - AppliedPsychologythe branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems - covers a variety of professional specialties, including school psychology, industrial and organizational psychology and counseling psychology - ClinicalPsychologyis the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnoses and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Psychology returns to its Roots: Renewed interest in Cognition and Physiology - Cognitionrefers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge - cognitive theorists have argued that psychology must study internal mental events to fully understand behaviour - Hebbs suggested that repeated stimulation leads to the development of cell assemblies, these cell assemblies resemble cognitive units that together or in concert with other cell assemblies facilitate behaviour - Advocates of the biological perspective maintain that much of human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of bodily structure and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave. Psychology Broadens it’s Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity - The focus of psychology was narrow; it was based on the Western society culture and not ethnic minorities. This was BEcause : - One; cross-cultural research was costly - Second; some psychologists worried that cultural comparisons may inadvertently foster stereotypes - Third; ethnocentrism- the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways - The focus was broadened later on due to two recent trends - One; Advances in communication, travel, and international trade ‘shrunk’ the world - Second; The Western culture grew to be a multicultural mosaic Psychology Adapts: The Emergences of Evolutionary Psychology - EvolutionaryPsychologyexamines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations - Thus, evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in spatial ability - and many other aspects of human behaviour - in terms of how abilities evolved to meet the adaptive pressures faced by our ancestors. - Critics: Many evolutionary hypotheses are untestable, that human behaviour is the result of learning and socialization not evolution, and that evolutionary explanations are post hoc, speculations accounts for obvious behaviour phenomenon - Evolutionists come back with persuasive rebuttals Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction: The Positive Psychology Movement - Martin Seligman found that psychology was excessively and needlessly negative in it’s approach - It historically devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness, damage and ways to heal suffering - Martin then launched a new initiative within psychology; positivepsychologymovement uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence - Three areas of interest; - One; positive subjective experience or positive emotions - Second; positive individual traits or personal strengths and virtues - Third; positive institutions and communities Psychologyis the science that studies behaviour and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of the science to practical problems Research Areas in Psychology - There are 7major research areas in modern psychology; - One; DevelopmentalPsychologylooks at human development across the life span, focuses primarily on child development but devotes time to other stages - Two; SocialPsychologyfocuses on interpersonal behaviour and the role of social forces in governing behaviour - attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate relationships are the topics included here - Three; ExperimentalPsychologyencompasses the traditional core of topics that psychology focused on heavily in its first half as a science - sensation, perception, learning, conditional, motivation and emotion - Four; PhysiologicalPsychologyExamines the influence of genetic factors on behaviour and the role of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behaviour - Five; CognitivePsychologyfocuses on ‘higher’ mental processes, such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making and creativity - Six; Personality is interested in describing and understanding individuals’ consistency in behaviour, which represents their personality - also interested the factors that shape personality and with personality assessment - Seven; Psychometricsis concerned with the measurement of behaviour and capacities, involved with the designs of tests to assess personality, intelligence, and a wide range of abilities and development of new techniques for statistical analysis Professional Specialties in Psychology - Applied psychology consists of four clearly identified areas of specialization; - One; ClinicalPsychologyis concerned with the evolution, diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders as well as treatment of less sever behavioural and emotional problems - Two; CounselingPsychologyoverlaps with clinical psychology; however it usually works with a somewhat different clientele, providing assistance to people struggling with everyday problems of moderate severity - often specify in family, marital or career counseling - Three; EducationalandSchoolPsychologyworks to improve curriculum design, achievement testing, teacher training, and other aspects of the educational process - Four; IndustrialandOrganizationalPsychologyperforms a wide variety of tasks in the world of business and industry. These include running human resources departments, working to improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to increase job satisfaction and productivity etc. - Clinical psychology and psychiatry are similar but different at the same time, Clinical psychology deals with non medical approach to problems - While psychiatry is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study - Theme1: Psychology is Empirical - Empericismis the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation - conclusions are based on direct observation rather than on reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs and common sense - Theme2: Psychology is Theoretically Diverse - Psychologists do not set out to just collect isolated facts; they seek to explain and understand what they observe - A Theoryis a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations - No single theory can adequately explain everything that is known about behaviour, sometimes different theories focus on different aspects of behaviour. - Theme3: Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context - Dense interconnection exist between what happened in psychology and what happens in society at large - Psychology develops in a social and historical context - Our review of psychology’s past is filled with examples of how social trends left their imprint on psychology; society and psychology influence each other in complex ways. Themes Related to Psychology’s Subject Matter - Theme4: Behaviour is Determined by Multiple Causes - Behaviour is exceedingly complex, and most aspects of behaviour are determined by multiple causes - Single-cause explanations are sometimes accurate as far as they go, but they usually are incomplete - Complex network of interacting factors, an idea referred to as the multifactorial causation of behaviour - Theme5: Behaviour is Shaped by Cultural Heritage - People’s cultural backgrounds, exert considerable influence over their behaviour - Culturerefers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations - Because a cultural background is widely shared, members feel little need to discuss it with others and often take it for granted - Although the influence of culture is everywhere, generalization about cultural groups must always be tempered by the realization that great diversity also exists within any society or ethnic group - Theme6: Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behaviour - Theorists argued that personal traits and abilities are governed either entirely by heredity or entirely by environment - Today most psychologists agree that heredity and environment are both important - Influence an individual’s intelligence, temperament, personality and susceptibility to many psychological disorders - Psychologists are actively seeking to understand the complex ways in which genetic inheritance and experience interact to mould behaviour - Theme7:People’s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective - People actively process incoming stimulation, selectively focusing on some aspect of that stimulation while ignoring others - Perceptions were swayed by their motives. It shows how people sometimes what what they want to see - people also tend to see what they expect to see - In some respect, overcoming subjectivity is what science is all about - Psychologists are committed to the scientific approach because they believe it is the most reliable route to accurate knowledge Chapter2-TheResearchEnterpriseinPsychology Goals of Scientific Enterprise - Psychologists and other scientists share three sets of interrelated goals: - One; Measurementanddescription: Science’s commitment to observation requires that an investigator figures out a way to measure the phenomenon under study - The first goal of psychology is to develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely - Two; Understandingandprediction: Scientists believe that they understand events when they come to explain the reasons for the occurrence of the event - A Hypothesisis a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. - Variablesare any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study - Three: Applicationandcontrol: Ultimately, many scientists hope that the information they gather will be of some practical value in helping to solve everyday problems. - Psychologists do not set out just to collected isolated facts about relationships between variables, to build towards a better understanding of behaviours they construct theories - Thus by integrating apparently unrelated facts and principles into a coherent whole, theories permit psychologists to make the leap from the description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour - Theory construction is a gradual, iterative process that is always subject to revision Steps in a Scientific Investigation - Scientific investigations, however, are systematic, they follow an orderly pattern described in steps 1 through 5 - StepOne:Formulate a Testable Hypothesis - The first step in a scientific investigation is to translate a theory or an intuitive idea into testable hypothesis - To be testable, scientific hypotheses must be formulated precisely and the variables under study must be clearly defined - An operationaldefinitiondescribes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control variable - StepTwo:Selected the Research Method and Design the Study - The The second step in a scientific investigation is to figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test - The researcher has to ponder the pros and cons and then select the strategy that appears to be the most appropriate and practical - Participantor subjects are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study - StepThree: Collect the Data - Datacollectiontechniqueswhich are procedures for making empirical observations and measurement - StepFour: Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusion - Researchers use statistics to analyze their data and to decide whether their hypotheses have been supported - StepFive: Report the Findings - Scientific progress can be achieved only if researchers share their findings with one another and with the general public - a journal is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually is a narrowly defined area of inquiry Advantages of the Scientific Approach - Science is certainly not the only method that can be used to draw conclusions about behaviour, everyone uses logic, casual observation and good old-fashioned common sense - The Scientific Approach offers two major advantages - First: it is the clarity and precision. - The scientific approach requires that people specify exactly what they are talking about when they formulate hypotheses - Second: Relative intolerance of error - Researchmethodsconsist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation and control of variable in empirical studies - The Experimentis a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result Independent and Dependent Variables - An independentvariableis a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see it’s impact on another variable - variable that the experimenter controls or manipulates - The DependentVariableis the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable - some aspect of the participants’ behaviour Experiment and Control Groups - The ExperimentalGroupconsists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regards to the independent variable. - The ControlGroupconsists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group - If the two groups are alike in all respects except for the variation created by the manipulation of the independent variable, any differences between the two groups on the dependent variable must be due to the manipulation of the independent variable Extraneous Variables - It is impossible to ensure that two groups of participants are exactly alike in every respect, the experimental and control groups have to be alone only on dimensions relevant to the dependent variable - ExtraneousVariablesare any variables other then the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study - A Confoundingofvariablesoccurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects - When an extraneous variable is confounded with an independent variable, a researcher cannot tell which is having what effect on the dependent variable - Randomassignmentof subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group of conditions in the study Variation in Designing Experiments - Many variations are possible in conducting experiments; these variations warrant a brief mention; - First: it is sometimes advantageous to use only one group of subjects - Within-subjects design because comparisons are made within the same group of participants - Between-subject design because comparisons are made between two different groups of participation - Second: it is possible to manipulate more than one independent variable in a single experiment - The main advantage of this is to see whether two variables interact. - An interaction means that the effects of one variable depend on the effects of another - Third: It is also possible to use more than one dependent variable in a single study Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research - The experiment’s principle advantage is that it permits conclusions about cause-and- effect relationships between variables - This advantage is why psychologists usually prefer to use the experimental method whenever possible - One problem is that experiments are often artificial - When experiments are highly artificial, doubts arise about the applicability of findings to everyday behaviour outside the experimental laboratory - Field Experiments are research studies that use settings that are very much like real life - Psychologists are frequently interested in the effects of factors that cannot be manipulated as independent variables because of ethical concerns or practical realities Naturalistic Observation - In NaturalisticObservationa researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the research subjects or participants - Of course researchers have to make careful plans to ensure systematic, consistent observations - The major strength of naturalistic observation is that it allows researchers to study the behaviour under conditions that are less artificial than in experiments - Reactivityoccurs when a subject’s behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer - It often is difficult to translate naturalist observations into numerical data that permit precise statistical analyses. Case Studies - A casestudyis an in-depth investigation of an individual subject - In normal circumstances typical techniques include interviewing the subjects, interviewing people who are very close to the subjects, direct observations of the subjects, examination of records, and psychological testing - Case studies are particularly well suited for investigating certain phenomena, such as psychological disorders and neuropsychological issues - Case studies can also provide compelling real-life illustration that bolster a hypothesis or theory - It is relatively easy for investigators to see what they expect to see in case study research; they can focus on the information that applies to their view on the study Surveys - In a Surveyresearchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ behaviour - The major problem with surveys is that they depend on self-report data Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research - Advantages of these methods is that they give researchers a way to explore questions that could not be examined with experimental procedures. - Descriptive/correlational research broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study - Disadvantages are that investigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effect. - Consequently correlational research cannot demonstrate conclusively that two variables are causally related Statisticsis the use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical data - Permit researchers to draw conclusions based on their observations Descriptive Statistics - DescriptiveStatisticsare used to organize and summarize data - Key descriptive statistics include; - One:Central Tendency - Want to know what constitutes as a typical or average score - The medianis the score that falls exactly in the centre of the distribution of scores - The meanis the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution - The modeis the most frequent score in a distribution - The mean is the most useful measure of central tendency because additional statistical manipulations can be performed on it that are not possible with the median or the mode - The mean is however sensitive to extreme scores in distribution which can sometimes man the mean misleading - A FrequencyPolygonis a line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution. - A FrequencyDistributionis an orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each score or a group of scores - A negativelyskeweddistributionin which most scores pile up at the high and end of the scale - A positivelyskeweddistributionin which score pile up at the low - Two:Variability - Variability refers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean - Range; calculating the range ins easy, you simply subtract the lowest score in your sample from the highest score - While it gives you an idea of the difference between extreme scores, it is not sensitive to the number of scores that lie between those extremes - The standarddeviationis an index of the amount of variability in a set of data - The normaldistributionis a symmetrical bell shaped curve that represents the patter in which many human characteristics are dispersed in the population - The normal distribution is not law of nature. It is a mathematical function, or theoretical curve, that approximates the way nature seem to operate - Psychological tests are relative measures; they assess how people score on a trait in comparison to other people - Normal distribution gives us a precise way to measure how people stack up in comparison to each other - If you know the mean and standard deviation of a normally distributed trait, you can tell where any score fall inot eh distribution for the trait - A percentilescoreindicates the percentage of people who score at or below a particular score - Three:Correlation - A correlationexists when two variables are related to each other - The correlationcoefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationships between two variables - Positive versus Negative Correlation - A positive correlation indicates that two variables co-vary in the same direction - A negative correlation indicates the two variables co-vary in the opposite direction - Strength of the Correlation - Size of the coefficient indicates the strength of an association between two variables - A coefficient near zero indicates no relationship between the variable - Strength of a correlation depends only on the size of the coefficient - Correlation and Prediction - As a correlation increases in strength, the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable increases ← - Correlation and Causation - It does not tell us whether a cause-and-effect relationship exists between the two variables. - Correlation is not equivalent to the causation Inferential Statistics - InferentialStatisticsare used to interpret data and draw conclusions - If your results could easily have occurred by change, they don’t provide meaningful support for our hypothesis - StatisticalSignificanceis said to exist when the probability that the observed findings are due to change is very lower; fewer then 5 chances out of 100 - Meta-analysisthe result of findings obtained in several studies are integrated to allow for conclusions regarding the set of observed results - Replicationis the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated Meta-Analysis - A meta-analysisis the combination of the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable’s effect - Analyzing the results of research studies that have already been conducted and analyzed - The results of a meta-analysis can give researchers details regarding the consistency and predictability of an experiment effect examined in many studies that may have used different types of participants and methods Sampling Bias - A sampleis the collection of a subject selected for observation in an empirical study - The populationis the much larger collection of animals or people the researchers want to generalize about - A sample is representative if its composition is similar in composition to the population - Samplingbiasexists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn Placebo Effects - Placebo is a substance that resembles a drug but has no actual pharmacological effect - Placeboeffectsoccurs when participants’ expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Distortion in Self-Report Data - Self-report data consisting of subjects’ verbal account of their behaviour - The SocialDesirabilitybiaswhich is a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself - Don’t depend on a participant’s conscious introspection, there are reffered to implicit measures - A responseset is a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the question - Halo Effect occurs when one’s overall evaluation of a person, object, or institution spills over to influence more specific rating Experimenter Bias - Objectivity is a goal that scientists strive for, not accomplished fact that can be taken for granted - Experimenterbiasoccurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained - Experimenters bias may influence both researchers’ observation and their subjects’ behaviours - The double-blindprocedureis a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimental or control groups The internet and Psychological Research - Internet-mediatedresearch refers to studies in which data collection is done using the Web - Recruitment via the Internet can yield sizable samples that would be difficult of impossible to obtain through traditional research procedures - One major concern is the potential for sampling bias - Another issues is data is collected under far less controlled conditions than in traditional studies Do the Ends Justify the Means? - These dilemmas reflect concerns about the possibility for inflicting harm on participants. - In psychology ethical concerns centre on the use of deception and on guidelines for the participation of humans and animals in psychological research - First, they assert that deception is only a nice word for lying which they see as inherently immoral - Second they argue that by deceiving unsuspecting participants, psychologists, may undermine many individuals’ trust in others - Third they point out that many deceptive studies precedes distress for participants who were not forewarned about that possibility Ethical Guidelines for research - The CPA has spent a greater deal of effort developing ethical guidelines to inform psychological research - Having a representative sample is important when you are interpreting and generalizing survey result - All such persons should be treated with dignity and the psychologists should ensure that their value is not dependent upon culture Themes - Two of our seven unifying themes are emerged strongly in this chapter - First: the entire chapter is an testimonial to the idea that psychology is empirical - Second: the discussion of methodological flaws in research provides numerous examples of how people’s experience of the world can be highly subjective Chapter3-TheBiologicalBasesofBehaviour Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware - The cells in the nervous system fall into two major categories - One: Neurons - Neuronsare individual cells in the nervous system that recieve, integrat and transmit information - The somaor cellbodycontains the cells nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells - Dendritesare the parts of neurons that are specialized to recieve information - The axonis a long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons to the muscle or glands - The myelinsheathis insulating material, derived from glial cells that encases some axons - Terminalbuttonswhich are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters - These chemicals serve as messengers that may activate neighbouring neurons - A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another - To summarize; information is received at the dendrites, it is passed through the soma and along the axon, and is transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called the synapses. - Two: Glia - Gliaare cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons - remove neurons’ waste products, and provide insulation around many axons - play a complicated role in orchestrating the development of the nervous system in the human embryo - It plays an important role in memory formation The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information - The Neuron at Rest: A Tiny Battery - Both inside and outside the neuron are fluids containing electrically charged atoms and molecules called ions - The resulting voltage means that the beurons at rest is a tiny batter, a store of potential energy - The restingpotentialofaneuronis its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive ← - The Action Potential - As long as the voltage of a neuron remains constant the cell is quiet and no messes are being sent - An actionpotential is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon - The absoluterefractoryperiodis the minimum length of time after an action poten
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