Textbook Notes (363,126)
Canada (158,212)
York University (12,357)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 1010 (1,075)

Psychology in Modules: Module 22.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Module 22 Page 1 Module 22 Effects of Biology and Cognition and Learning by Observation Limits on Classical Conditioning Learning - the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours  Early behaviourists realised an animal's capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology  John Garcia and Robert Koelling noticed rats began avoiding drinking water in radiation chambers. Could the rats have linked the water to the sickness triggered by the radiation?  Rats became sickened several hours after the tasting had occurred...therefore violating the Pavlov notion that the US must immediately follow the CS.  Sickened rats developed aversions to taste, but not to sights or sounds. Contradicting any behaviourists idea that any stimulus could serve as a CS. Easiest way for the rats to identify is to taste it (taste aversion).  German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer said "Important ideas are first ridiculed, then attacked, and finally taken for granted."  The tendency to learn behaviours favoured by natural selection may help explain why humans seem to be naturally disposed to learn associations between the colour red and sexuality. Females display red when bearing ovulation. Enhanced blood flow in females produces the red blush of flirtation and sexual excitation. Red lipstick without awareness does enhance men's attraction to women. Limits on Operant Conditioning  We most easily learn and retain behaviours that reflect our biological predispositions.  Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Ex. You can easily condition a hamster to dig using food, but you won't be successful in teaching it face washing, a behaviour that isn't associated with food or hunger.  U of Minnesota grad students Marian & Keller Breland formed a company which trained over 15,000 animals. They too noticed biological constraints Ex. Pig picking up wooden money to deposit into a piggy bank, began to push it with its snout and pick it up etc. Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning Cognitive Learning - the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. Robert Rescorla & Allan Wagner showed an animal can learn the predictability of an event. The animal learns an expectancy of how likely it is that the US will occur. Studies indicate that likes & dislikes are even stronger when people notice and are aware of the association they have learned. Module 22 Page 2 Cognitive Processes and Operant Conditioning Skinner believed that thoughts an
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.