Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness
Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli. Maintain some degrees of awareness when
we are asleep or even under anesthesia
Stream of Consciousness the continuous change of consciousness
Mind Wandering people’s experience of task-unrelated thoughts, thoughts that are not related to what they
are intentionally trying to do at a given moment. People spend 15- 50% of their time mind wandering
Controlled andAutomatic Processes: distinction between what we control about our mental processes and
what just seems to happen is the difference between controlled and automatic processes
Conscious Thought: thought with attention
Unconscious Thought: thought without attention or with attention directed elsewhere
Electroencephalograph (EEG): a device monitoring the electric activity of the brain over time by means of
recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. It summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the
brain by tracing brain waves.
Brain Wave Tracings vary in amplitude (height) and frequency (cycles per second/ cps)
Human Brain Wave activity is divided into four principle bands:
EEG PATTERN Frequency (cps) Typical Status of Consciousness
Beta 13- 24 cps Normal waking thought, alert problem solving
Alpha 8-12 cps Deep relaxation, blank mind, medication
Theta 4-7 cps Light sleep
Delta Less than 4 Deep Sleep
Biological Rhythms: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning. Variations in consciousness are
shaped in part by these rhythms. The existence of these rhythms means that organisms have internal
“biological clocks” that somehow monitor the passage of time.
Circadian Rhythms: 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species. In humans,
circadian rhythms are influential in the regulation of sleep
Electromyograph (EMG): records muscular activity and tension
Electrooculograph (EOG): Records eye movements How long it takes to fall asleep depends on various factor: it depends on how long it has been since the
person has slept, where the person is in his/ her circadian cycle, boredom level, caffeine or drug intake etc.
Stage 1: a brief transitional stage of light sleep that usually lasts only 1-7 minutes. Breathing and heart rate
slow, muscle tension and body temperature decline.Alpha waves give way to lower frequency EEG
activity in which theta waves become prominent. Hypnic jerks, brief muscular contractions occur during
stage one drowsiness.
Stage 2: Lasts 10-25 minutes brief bursts of higher frequency brain waves called sleep spindles appear
against a background of eeg activity. Brain waves become higher in amplitude and slower in frequency, as
the body moves into a deeper form of sleep, called slow wave sleep
Stages 3 and 4: Slow wave sleep during which high amplitude, low frequency delta waves become
prominent in EEG recordings. Typically slow wave sleep is reached in half an hour and stays for about 30
minutes. The cycle then reverses and the sleeper gradually moves back upward through the lighter stages
Stage 5: When sleepers reach what should be stage 1 they usually go into the fifth stage of sleep, which is
most widely known as REM sleep.
REM Rapid Eye Movements: discovered in Nathaniel Kleithmans lab at the university of Chicago. William
Dement coined the term rapid eye movement. REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by
rapid eye movements, high frequency, low amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming
Non REM sleep consists of stages 1-4 marked by the absence of rapid eye movements relatively little
dreaming and varied EEG activity.
The sleep cycle is repeated about 4 times.As the night wears on the cycle changes gradually. The first
REM period is relatively short, subsequent REM periods get progressively longer, peaking at around 40- 60
minutes in length
Infants spend much more of their sleep time in the REM stage than adults do. In the first few months REM
accounts for 50% of babies sleep, while it accounts for 20% of adults sleep.
Older Adults (60-80) showed significantly less sleepiness during the day than younger adults (18-30) even
though the older group chose to sleep an average of 1.5 hours less per day
Co sleeping- the practice of children and parents sleeping together. Discouraged in western societies,
widely acceptable in the Japanese culture which emphasizes interdependence and group harmony.
The ascending reticular activating system : consists of the afferent fibres running through the reticular
formation that influence physiological arousal
Activity in the pons and adjacent areas in the midbrain seems to be critical to the generation of REM sleep
The hypothalamus is important for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness
The Ebb and Flow of sleep and waking is regulated through activity in a constellation of interacting brain
centres Sleep restriction:
partial sleep deprivation, or sleep restriction, which occurs when people make do with substantially less
sleep than normal over a period of time.
Selective deprivation: study of the effects of partial sleep deprivation during the REM stage
REM Deprivation studies it is most important to awaken subjects more and more often to deprive them of
their REM sleep, because they spontaneously shift into REM more frequently. After the sleep subjects
experience a REBOUND EFFECT that is they spend extra time in REM periods for one to three nights to
make up for their REM deprivation
Concludes that people must have specific strong needs for REM and slow wave sleep
REM and slow wave sleep contribute to firming up learning that takes place during the day.
Memory Consolidation: The general effects of firming up learning that has taken place during the day
Neurogenesis: REM sleep appears to foster the recently discovered process of neurogenesis. Neurogenesis
is the formation of new neurons. This finding meshes with the data linking REM sleep to memory
consolidation b/c independent lines of research suggest that neurogenesis contributes to learning
Sleep less than 7 hours regularly: elevated mortality risk
Sleep more than eight hours: elevated mortality risk
Sleep over 10 hours: especially high mortality risk
Insomnia: The most common sleep disorder. The chronic problems in getting adequate sleep. It occurs in
three different patterns: 1) difficulty falling asleep 2) difficulty remaining asleep 3) persistent early
34-35 percent of adults report problems with insomnia and about half of these people (15-17%) suffer from
severe or frequent insomnia
Pseudo-Insomnia: or sleep state misperception, means people just think that they are getting an inadequate
amount of sleep.
Causes of Insomnia: Excessive anxiety and tension prevent relaxation and keep people awake. Frequent
side effect of emotional problems such as depression, significant stress such as pressures at work.
Hyperarousal model of insomnia: Some people are predisposed to insomnia b/c they have a higher level of
physiological arousal than the average person. Hormonal patterns that fuel arousal, elevated heart rate, high
metabolic activation, increased body temperature, and EEG patterns associated with arousal. The chronic
heightened physiological activation presumably makes these people especially vulnerable to insomnia.
Treatment: Prescription of Benzodiazepine sedatives (ex Dalmane, Halcion, and Restoril) and newer
nonbenzodiazepine sedatives (ex Ambien, Sonata and Lunesta) Sedatives can be a poor long term solution to insomnia with effects of drowsiness, sluggishness, with more
use sedatives become less effective so some people increase dosage causing higher dependency and
Narcolepsy: a disease marked by sudden irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods.
Narcolepsy goes directly from wakefulness into REM sleep (10- 20 minutes) (Falling asleep out of
nowhere during the day)
SleepApnea: involves frequent reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep. Some
people are awakened hundreds of times a night. This occurs when a person stops breathing for a minimum
of 10 seconds with atleast 5 of these events occurring per hour of sleep. Loud snoring accompanies it and
2% of women and 4% of men experience it. Increases vulnerability to hypertension, coronary disease and
Nightmares: anxiety arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep. Significant stress is
associated with frequency and intensity of nightmares. Higher frequencies of nightmares correlates with
measures of well being. Higher frequencies of nightmares were associated with increased scores on
variables such as neuroticism, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and depression. Persistant nightmares may reflect
an emotional disturbance,
Night Terrors/ Sleep terrors: are abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense automatic
arousal and feelings of panic. Do not remember dream but a simple frightening image. Especially common
in children 3-8
Somnambulism/ sleepwalking: occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep.
Sleepwalking tends to occur during the first 2 hours of sleep, when individuals are in slow wave sleep.
Episodes may last 15 to 30 minutes. It is safe to gently wake someone from a sleepwalking episode
REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD): marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM
periods. People who exhibit this syndrome may talk, yell, or leap out of bed during their REM dreams.
They report being chased of attacked in their dreams. People normally in REM sleep are paralyzed, which
prevents dream enactments, the cause of RBD is deterioration in the brainstem structures that are normally
responsible for this immobilization during REM. (Zio peter)
Non REM stages of sleep have found that dreams appear to be less vivid visual and story like than REM
dreams. Dreamers realize they are dreaming more often than previously thought and that mental processes
during sleep are more similar to waking thought processes than is widely assumed. Most dreams are
One universal characteristic of dreams is we almost always experience dreams from a first person
There are significant differences between male and females.
Male dreams: positive in nature
Female dreams: negative including dreams relating to phobias, performance anxiety, and loss of control
Dreaming is a cognitive ability that developes gradually, like other cognitive abilities. Dreams under age 5: static bland images no storyline.
Lucid Dreams: when people realize they are dreaming while still in the dream state. Some people may be
able to exert some control over their dream
Sigmund Freud believed that the principle purpose of dreams is wish fulfillment
Activation Synthesis Model: dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces “wide awake”
brain waves during REM sleep. Neurons firing periodically in lower brain centres send random signals to
the cortex. The activation synthesis model does not assume that dreams are meaningless.
Hypnosis: a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility. It may also
lead to passive relaxation, narrowed attention and enhanced fantasy. The history of hypnosis comes from
physician FranzAnton Mesmer who claimed to cure people of illness by laying on their hands. To this day
our language preserves the memory of Franz Mesmor as when we are under a spell of an event we are
mesmerized. Scottish physician James Braid populized the term hypnotism (greek word sleep)
10-20% of the population doesn’t respond well to hypnotism, while 10-15% are exceptionally good
High Hypnotizability is made up of three components:Absorption, dissociation and suggestibility.
Absorption involves the capacity to reduce or block peripheral awareness and narrow the focus of ones
Dissociation: the ability to separate aspects of perception memory or identity from the main stream of
Suggestibility: the tendency to accept directions and information relatively uncritically
Many effects can be produced through hypnosis:
Anasthesia: under the influence of hypnosis some participants can withstand treatments that would
normally cause considerable pain. Substitute for anesthetic drugs
Sensory distortions and hallucinations: hypnotized participants may be led to experience auditory or visual
Disinhibition: Generally, it is difficult to get hypnotized participants to do things that they would normally
consider unacceptable. Hypnosis can sometimes reduce inhibitions that would normally prevent subjects
from acting in ways that they would see as socially undesirable
Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia: suggestions made during hypnosis may influence a subjests later
behavior. The most common posthypnotic suggestion is the creation of posthypnotic amnesia. Participants
are told they will remember nothing, such subjects usually claim to remember nothing, but when pressed
reveal they have not forgotten the info
Hypnotic Trance: special altered state of consciousness where their patterns of EEG activity cannot be
distinguished from their EEG patterns in normal waking states. The failure to find any special
physiological changes associated with hypnosis has led some theorists to conclude that hypnosis is a
normal state of consciousness that is simply characterized by dramatic role playing
Dissociation: splitting off of mental processes into two separate simultaneous stream of awareness. Hilgard
theorizes that hyposis splits consciousness into 2 streams. One stream is in communication with the
hypnotist and the external world and the other is a difficult to detect hidden observer. Hilgard believes
many hypnotic effects are a product of this divided consciousness Meditation: a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes
under greater voluntary control
Psychoactive drugs: chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning
Drug Method of Medical Uses Desired Effects Short Term Effects
Narcotics: Injected, smoked, Pain releif Euphoria, relaxation Lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, impaired
Opiates oral Anxiety reduced coordination, impared mental functioning,
(morphine, pain releif constipation
Sedatives Oral, injected Sleeping pill, Euphoria relaxation Lethargy, drowsiness, severly impaired
barbiturates, non anticonvulsant anxiety reduced coordination, impared mental functioning,
barbirates inhibitions reduce emotional swings, depression
Stimulants: Oral, sniffed, Treatment of Excitement Increased blood pressure and heart rate,
Amphetamines injected, hyperactivity, increased, alertness, increased talkativeness, restlessness,
Cocaine freebased, smoked narcolepsy, high energy, insomnia, irritability, sweating increased
cocaine used as reduced fatigue urination, increased aggression, panic
Hallucinogens Oral None Increased sensory Dilated pupils, nausea, emotional swings,
LSD Mescaline awareness, euphoria paranoia, jumbled thought process,
Psilocybin altered perceptions impaired judgment, anxiety, panic
Cannabis, Smoked, Oral Treatment of Mild euphoria, Bloodshot eyes, elevated heart rate, dry
Marijuana, glaucoma and relaxation, altered mouth, reduced short term memory,
Hashish THC chemo induced perceptions, sluggish motor coordination, sluggish
vomiting enhanced awareness mental functioning, anxiety
Alcohol Drinking None Mild Euphoria, Severely impaired coordination, impaired
relaxation, anxiety mental functioning, increased urination,
reduction, reduced emotional swings, depression,
inhibitions quarrelsomeness, hangover
NARCOTICS or OPIATES: HEROIN and MORPHINE, less potent opiates include CODEINE.
OXYCOTIN. Drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain. The opiate drugs can produce a
sense of euphoria or well being. This euphoric effect has a relaxing who cares quality that makes the high
an escape from reality.
SEDATIVES: DOWNERS. Sleep inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system activation
and behavioral acticivty. Abuse of sedatives is through large consumption of doses prescribed for medical
purposes. Feelings of tension are replaced by a relaxed state of intoxication. Side affects: drowsiness,
emotional swings, severe impairments of mental functioning and motor coordination
STIMULANTS: CAFFEINE, NICOTINE,AMPHETAMINES, COCAINE. Drugs that tend to increase
central nervous system activation and behavioural activity. Cocaine and amphetamines have have fairly
similar effects, except that cocaine produces a briefer high. Produce an energetic buoyant high “I can
conquer the world” Increase the release of dopamine and norepinephrine and seconarly inhibit the reuptake
of these neurotransmitters. Cocaine interferes with reuptake at DA, NE and serotonin synapses HALLOUCINOGENS: LSD, MESCALINE, PSILOCYBIN. Drugs that have powerful effects on mental
and emotional functioning, by distortions in sensory and perceptyal experience. Produce euphoria,
increased sensory awareness, distorted sense of time. Hallucinogens also produce nightmareish feelings of
anxiety and paranoia, “bad trip.” Impaired judgment and jumbled thought process.
CANNABIS: MARIJUANA, HASHISH,AND THC DERIVED FROM THE HEMP PLANT. Cannabis
has an immediate impact that lasts several hours. Relaxed euphoria, enhanced sensory awareness.
Unintended effects include anxiety, sluggish mental functioning, and impared memory.
ALCOHOL: Encompasses a variety of bevarages containing ethyl alcohol. Heavy drinking produces a
relaxed euphoria that temporarily boosts self esteem, problems melt away. Side effects include severe
impairment in mental and motor functioning, mood swings, quarrelsomeness.Alcohol is the most widely
used recreational drug in society.
MDMAor ECSTASY: Compound drug related to amphetamines and hallocinogens, especially mescaline.
Produces a shorthigh that lasts a few hours, warm friendly euphoric, sensual, insightful and empathetic, but
alert and energetic. Problematic side effects include increased blood pressure, muscle tension, sweating,
blurred vision, insomnia and transient anxiety.
Tolerance: progressive decrease in a persons responsiveness to a drug.
Cannabinoid Receptors: two types of receptors in the brain for THC, the active chemical ingredient in
marijuana. It appears that THC from marijuana “hijacks” the brains cannabinoid receptors, eventually
leading to increased release of endorphins and activation of the dopamine circuits associated with reward
Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway:All abused drugs eventually increase activity in a particular neural
Physical Dependence: when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness. The
symptoms of withdrawal illness depend on the specific drug. Withdrawal from heroin, barbiturates, and
alcohol can produce fever, chills, vomiting, depression, irritability, disorientation etc.
Psychological Dependence: when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and
emotional craving for the drug. Psychological dependence is more subtle than physical dependence, but the
need it creates can be powerful. Cocaine can produce an overwhelming psychological need for continued use. Psychological dependence is possible with all recreational drugs, although it seems rare for
Central Nervous System Depressants: sedatives, narcotics, and alcohol- carry the greatest risk of overdose.
The respiratory system usually grinds to a halt, producing coma, brain damage, and death within a brief
Chapter 6 Learning
Learning: any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. Learning
shapes personal habits, personality traits, personal preferences and emotional responses.
Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects and situations and are often the result of another learning
process termed classical conditioning.
Condtitioning involves learning connections between events that occur in an organisms environment
Classical Conditioning: type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a
response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. The process was first described around
1900 by Ivan Pavlov, and it is sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning.
Pavlov de-emphasized the mind, and mentalistic accounts of behavior and showed how learning was under
the influence of experience and that “associations could be built up in consciousness”
Neutral Stimulus: When something (ex a tone) does not originally produce a response, but produces
a response when pared with a stimulus
Unconditional Stimulus UCS-Astimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous
conditioning. (ex meat powder)
Unconditioned Response UCR: Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without
previous conditioning. (salivation to meat powder)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired
the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. (tone after being conditioned with meat powder)
Conditioned Response (CR): a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of
previous conditioning (salivation to the sound of the tone)
Psychic Reflex/ Conditioned Reflex: Classically conditioned responses have been characterized as reflexes
and are because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntary.
NS tone no response
UCS meat powder UCR salivation
DURING CONDITIONING: NS tone + UCS meat powder UCR salivation
CS tone CR salivation
An original neutral stimulus (tone) combined with an unconditioned stimulus (meat powder elicited
an unconditioned response.After conditioning the tone becomes a conditioned stimulus, evoking a
conditioned response of salivation without the actual unconditioned stimulus of meat powder.
Trial in Classical Conditioning: any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli. Psychologists are
interested in how many trials are required to establish a particular conditioning bond.
Case studies of people suffering from phobias suggest that many irrational fears can be traced back to
experiences that involve classical conditioning.
Everyday fear responses that are less severe than phobias may also be a product of classical conditioning.
Evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus
with other positive or negative stimuli. It involves the acquisition of likes and dislikes through classical
conditioning. EX: Pairing an attractive face gazing directly at the viewer with various peppermint brands,
swayed subjects band preference
Classical conditioning affects physiological processes. Ex immune functioning… when an infectious agent
invades the body, the immune system attempts to repel the invasion by producing specialized proteins
Immunosuppression: a decrease in the production of antibodies.
Stimuli that are consistently paired with the administration of drugs can acquire the capacity to elicit
conditioned responses in both humans and lab animals. These opponent responses, which have been seen as
the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants, and alcohol, are called compensatory CR’s b/c they
partially compensate for some drug effects.
Classical conditioning is often portrayed as a mechanical process that inevitably leads to a certain result.
This view reflects the fact most conditioned responses are reflexive and difficult to control
Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something. Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned
response depends on stimulus contiguity. Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space
Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. Extinction is
caused by the consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned
Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the
Renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the
extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where the
acquisition took place Stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus
responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the generalization
Stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus and does not
respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Higher order conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus. Higher
order conditioning shows that classical conditioning does not depend on the presence of a genuine, natural
UCS and already established CS will do just fine
Ap Dijksterhuis uses subliminal conditioning to raise peoples self esteem level
Classical Conditioning best explains reflexive responding that is largely controlled by stimuli that precede
the response. However humans and other animals make a great many responses that don’t fit this
Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
Classical conditioning sometimes contributes to the regulation of voluntary behavior that operant
conditioning can influence involuntary visceral responses and that the two types of conditioning jointly and
interactively govern some aspects of behavior.
Instrumental learning:Another name for operant conditioning. Edward LThorndike. Thorndike wanted to
emphasize that this kind of responding is often instrumental in obtaining some desired outcome
Law of effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects the association between
the stimulus and the response is strengthened.
Reinforcement: Occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that
response. Aresponse is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences. Skinner demonstrated
that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences.
Operant Chamber/ Skinner Box: a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is
recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled.
Reinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the
presentation of reinforcers.
The cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a
function of time.
Arapid response rate produces a steep slope whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope. Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process called shaping, which consists of the
reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response. Shaping is necessary when an
organism does not on its own emit the desired response
Resistance extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the
reinforcer has been terminated.
Resistance to extinction depends on a variety of factors. Chief among them is the schedule of
reinforcement used during acquisition
Renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the
extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition
Discriminative stimuli are cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences
behavior (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response
Generalization: responding to a new stimulus as if it were the original. Discrimination would occur if the
cat learned to respond only to the can opener and not to the blender
The central process in reinforcement is the strengthening of a response tendency
Something that serves as a reinforcer one person may not function for another person. Ex parental approval
is a potent reinforcer for most children, however not all
Primary Reinforcers: events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcers: events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with
Reinforcement is key to the development of the kinds of superstitious behaviors exhibited by atheletes Superstitious behavior is common and accidental reinforcements may sometimes contribute to these
superstitions, along with various types of erroneous reasoning
Schedule of reinforcement: determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation
of a reinforcer.
Continuous reinforcement: when every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
Intermittent or partial reinforcement: when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
Organisms continue responding longer after removal of reinforcers when a response has been reinforced
only some of the time
Fixed Ratio schedule: the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses Ex: a rat is
reinforced for every 10 lever press
Variable Ratio schedule: the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. The