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Chapter 41

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 41: Taijin Kyofusho, Philippe Pinel, Mental Disorder

Course Code
PSYC 1010

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Defining psychological disorders:
Psychological disorder: a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's
cognition, emotion regulation or behavior
o Such thoughts, emotions or behaviors are dysfunctional or maladaptive because they
interfere with normal day-to-day life and activities
Before being gay was seen as a psychological problem but now it is not which shifts the societal
o Stigma and stresses of people who are in the LGBTQ+ community increase the risk of mental
health problems
Understanding psychological disorders:
The way we view a problem influences how we try to solve it
Before a strange behavior was seen as evidence of strange forces
Philippe Pinel opposed the brutal treatments that people did and said it was a sickness of the
mind that was caused by severe stress and inhuman conditions. To cure this illness he said
requires moral treatment, by unchaining them and talking with them
o Replace brutality with gentleness, isolation with activity and filth with clean air and sunshine
Some places today still treat mental illness by chaining people to bed or leaving them in confined
spaces with wild animals
o WHO is trying to change it world wide and trying to make it a friendlier environment
Medical model:
o Researchers found that syphilis infects the brain and distorts the mind
o Concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, that have physical causes that
can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
o Mental health movement: mental illness (also called psychopathology) needs to be
diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms
Needs to be treated through therapy, which may include a psychiatric hospital
Biopsychosocial approach:
o Calling psychological disorders "sickness" makes research heavily based towards the
influence of biology and away from the influence of personal history, social and cultural
o Biological, psychological and social-cultural influences together weave the fabric of our
behaviors, thoughts and feeling
o Schizophrenia: include irrationality and incoherent speech
o Disorders are associated with cultures
o Latin Americans claim to susto: condition marked by severe anxiety, restlessness and fear of
black magic
o Japanese culture people experience taijin kyofusho: social anxiety about their presence,
readiness to blush and fear of eye contact
o Eating disorders mostly occur in western cultures
o Malaysia amok describes sudden outbursts of violent behavior
o Biopsychosocial approach emphasizes that the mind and body are inseparable
o Negative emotions can contribute to physical illness and physical abnormalities can also
contribute to negative emotions
o Vulnerability- stress model: argues that individual characteristics combine with
environmental stressor to increase or decrease the likelihood of developing a psychological
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