Psychology Chapter 15
Treatment of psychological disorders
The elements of the treatment process
Treatments how many types are there?
May be over 400 approaches
Three major categories:
1. Insight therapies: aka “talk therapy” in tradition to Freud’s psychoanalysis.
Talking about issues or problems and trying to create solutions.
2. Behaviour therapies: Behaviour therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic
responses (e.g. phobias), and maladaptive habits (e.g. drug use). Attempting to
change a client’s behaviour through classical, and operant conditioning.
3. Biomedical therapies: involve interventions into a person’s biological functioning.
Most used procedures are drug therapy and electroconclusive therapy.
Client who seeks therapy?
Over 90% Canadians report they make a conscious effort to take care of their
Therapeutic triad (therapists, treatments, clients), they see people with all sorts of
issues like anxiety, depression, unsatisfactory interpersonal relationships,
troublesome habits, poor selfcontrol etc.
People take a long time to seek treatment, for example for bipolar it was 6 years,
for depression 8 years, and 9 years for anxiety.
Therapists: who provides professional treatment?
Physicians are main source of help
Psychotherapy refers to professional treatment by someone with special training.
1. Psychologists: Two types of psychologists clinical and counseling.
Counseling has to do with specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological disorders and everyday behavioural problems.
Clinical psychologists training emphasize the treatment of fullfledged disorders.
Counselling training has to do more with everyday adjustment problems.
2. Psychiatrists: are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of
Devote more time to relatively severe disorders (Schizophrenia, mood disorders),
and less time to everyday problems. They have an M.D degree; graduate training requires 4 years of medical school,
and 4 years in a hospital.
Psychiatrists are more likely to use psychoanalysis than psychologists.
3. Other mental health professional:
Clinical social workers, and psychiatric nurses work as part of a team with a
Counsellors are also found in schools, colleges, and assorted human service
Insight therapies: involves verbal interactions intended to enhance client’s self
knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour.
Is an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts,
motives, and defences through techniques such as free association and
Neuroses: refers to disorders such as phobic, panic, obsessivecompulsive, an
Probing the unconscious:
Two techniques are used to explore the unconscious:
1. Free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts, feelings exactly as
they occur, with as little censorship as possible.
2. Dream analysis: the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s
Refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the client’s
thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours.
Refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to hinder the
progress of therapy.
People resist because they don’t want to face up to the painful, disturbing
conflicts, and have buried thoughts.
Transference: Occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that
mimic critical relationships in their lives.
Clients start to transfer conflicting feelings about important people onto the
Requires 35 years.
Modern Psychodynamic therapies
Is an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for
clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their
Rogers believes most personal distress is due to incongruence between a person’s
selfconcept and reality.
Therapeutic Alliance: The importance of therapy climate
The lack of threat should reduce client’s defensive tendencies and thus help them
to open up through three conditions:
1. Genuineness: therapist must be genuine with a client, communicating honestly
2. Unconditional positive regard: therapist must also show complete, nonjudgmental
acceptance of the client as a person. Therapist should also provide warmth and
caring for the client, with no strings attached.
3. Empathy: Therapist must provide accurate empathy for the client.
Therapists look to clarify everything with their clients and make sure their client’s
feelings are clarified.
Emotionfocused therapy: takes this focus on emotions to the treatment of
Wellbeing therapy: seeks to enhance client’s acceptance, purpose in life,
autonomy, and personal growth.
Positive psychotherapy: used mainly in the treatment of depression. Attempts to
get clients to recognize their strengths, appreciate their blessings, savour positive
experiences, forgive those who wronged them, and find meaning in their lives. Group therapy:
Is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group
Participants act as therapists for one another, they share experiences, trade
viewpoints, and describe their problems. They also provide support.
Therapist’s responsibilities are to include selecting participants, set goals, initiate
and maintain the process, and protect clients from harm.
Advantages: Save time and money, and most people realize they are not alone and
build relationships with their members, and people get to work on their social
Couples and Family Therapy:
Involves the treatment of both partners in a committed, intimate relationship, in
which the main focus is on relationship issues.
Family therapy: involves the treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the
main focus is on family dynamics and communication.
How effective are insight therapies?
Spontaneous remission: is a recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal
Involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients’