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Chapter 5

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Slow-Wave Sleep, Theta Wave

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Doug Mc Cann

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CHAPTER 5: Variations in Consciousness
Consciousness- the awareness of internal and external stimuli; personal awareness
Stream of consciousness- the idea that the contents of your consciousness are continually changing
Sigmund Freud: believed in the unconscious, but examined what was beneath this stream…
- conscious and unconscious processes are different levels of awareness
- conscious is not an all-or-none phenomenon
Electroencephalograph (EEG)- a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by
means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp
- amplitude: height
- frequency: cycles per second
EEG patterns associated with states of consciousness
-beta (β): normal waking thought; alert problem solving
-alpha (α): deep relaxation; blank mind; meditation
-theta (θ): light sleep
-delta (): deep sleep
Biological Rhythms- periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
Circadian Rhythms- the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species
- influences the cycle of sleep and wakefulness
- when exposed to light, receptors send a signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC) located in
the hypothalamus
light retina SNC pineal gland (secretes melatonin)
-Melatonin- a hormone that adjusts biological clocks
- Circadian rhythms appear to be regulated by multiple internal clocks, with the central pacemaker
located in the SNC
Electromyograph (EMG) – records muscular activity and tension
Electrooculograph (EOG) – records eye movement
During sleep, people cycle through a series of FIVE STAGES:
Stage 1: Transitional stage of light sleep (theta waves)
-hypnotic jerks- brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep
Stage 2: Sleep spindles appear: brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves
Stages 3 and 4: Slow wave sleep (SWS)- high amplitude, low frequency (delta waves prominent)
Stage 5: Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) – deep sleep of high frequency (beta waves)
REM sleep- a relatively deep stage of sleep, marked by rapid eye movements, high frequency, low-
amplitude and vivid dreaming
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