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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

14 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 3 The biological bases of behavior Subconscious while watching a movieIf someone asked what you were doing youd simply say Watching a movieThough in reality a stimulus light from the screen is striking your eyeAlmost instantly your brain is interpreting the light stimulus and signals are flashing to other parts of your body leading to a flurry of activity Youre heartbeat is quickening and muscular movements are enabling your hand to find popcornetc Your nervous system consists of living tissue composed of cellsThese cells fall into 2 major categories the glianeurons Neurons cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information Permit communication with nervous system A small part carries messages form the nervous system to the muscles that move the body Somacell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells The rest is devoted to handling informationThe branched feelers like structures are called dendrites These are parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive informationFrom the many dendrites information flows into the cell body and away form the soma into the axon The axon is a long thin fiber that transmits signals away form the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands Theyre wrapped in a white fatty substance called myelin sheath which is insulating material derived from glial cells that encases some axons If this deteriorates it may not function properly The loss of muscle control is due to the degeneration of thisThe axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons which are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmittersThe points at which neurons interconnect are called synapsesA synapse junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another Basically information is received at the dendrites passed through the soma and along the axon and is transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapsesComplications some neurons dont have an axon while others have multiple axonsNeurons typically synapse on the dendrites of other cells they may also synapse on a soma or an axon Fundamental function of neurons nervous systems inputoutput devices that transmit receive and integrate informational signals Glia cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons Literally glueMuch smaller than neuronsoutnumber neuronsPlay a complicated role in orchestrating the development of the nervous system in the human embryoNew research suggests that glia may also send and receive chemical signals and that they may be implicated in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral and Parkinsons diseasePlays an important role in memory formation as well gradual deterioration may result in Alzheimers Glia cells may contribute to information processing in the nervous system most of it is handled by the neurons Pg 84 The Neural Impulse Using energy to send information When a neural is stimulatedneural impulse Neural impulse a complex electrochemical reaction Both inside and outside the neuron are fluids containing electrically charged atoms and molecules called ions
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