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Psychology 1010 Notes with Robert Deutch.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Robert Deutsch

Psychological Science is BornAristotle theorized about learningmemory motivationemotion perceptionpersonalityWundt conducted first psychology experiment Thinking about the Minds Structure Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind introduced by TitchenerIntrospection looking inward at ones self Titchener trained them to report elements of their experience as they are under a experimentResults of introspection not reliable due to person to person and experience to experienceo We dont often know why we feel what we feel and do what we doThinking about the Minds Functions Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioural processes functionhow they enable us to adapt survive and flourishThinking like smelling developed because it was adaptiveit contributed to our ancestors survival James idea influenced by Charles DarwinJames encouraged exploration of emotions memories willpower habits and momenttomoment streams of consciousnessJameso Admitted Mary Calkins into his graduate seminar tutored herCalkins scored high rejected by Harvard refused acceptance from woman collegeBecame first American Psychological Association President o Washburn second president in APA o Wrote influential book thesis was the first foreign study Wundt published o Holt offered James a contract for textbook Principles of PsychologyPsychological Science DevelopsWundt both philosopher and psychologist o WundtTitchener focused on inner sensations images feelings introspectiveJames philosopher o Introspective examination consciousness and emotionPavlov pioneered the study of learning psychologistFreud developed an influential theory of personality physician o Emotional responses to childhood experiencesour unconscious thought processes affect our behaviorPiaget influential observer of children biologistWatsonSkinner dismissed introspection o Redefined the science of mental life to the scientific study of observable behavior o Behaviourists the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes scientists disagree with 2Science is rooted in observationCan not observe ones sensation feeling or thought Can observe and record peoples behavior as they respond to different situationsHumanistic Psychology rebelled against Freudian psychology and behaviourism o Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential to personal growthImportant of current environmental influences on our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfiedCognitive revolution how our mind processes and retains infoCognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception thinking memory and language brain activity linked with mental activity o Explains the ways we perceive process and remember information o Helps in treating disorders depressionPsychology the science of behavior and mental processes o Behavior anything an organism doesany action we can observerecord Yelling smiling blinking sweating talking o Metal processes internal subjective experiences we infer from behaviorSensations perceptions dreams thoughts beliefs and feelings Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Biggest Question Naturenurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Todays science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurtureControversy of biology and experiencePlato assumed characterintelligence are largely inherited and that certain ideas are inbornAristotle countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in the external world through the sensesLocke rejected inborn ideas suggesting that the mind is a blank sheet on which experience writesDescartes some ideas are innate inherited Natural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generationsNurture works on what nature endows provides nurture is learning from naturePsychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis Levels of analysis the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analyzing any given phenomenonDifferent levels of analysis form an integrated biopsychological approachBiopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological psychological and socialcultural levels of analysis Behavior or Mental Processes Biological influences Psychological influences Socialcultural influencesNatural selection ofLearned fears andPresence of others adaptive traits other learnedCultural societal andGenetic predispositions expectations family expectations responding toEmotional responsesPeer and other group environmentCognitive processing influencesBrain mechanisms and perceptualCompelling modelsHormonal influences interpretation mediaEach level alone itself is incompletePsychologys SubfieldsQuest for psychologists describing and explaining behavior and the mind underlying itPsychologists conducts Basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base5 different examples of researchers Biological psychologistsExplore the links between the brain and mind Developmental psychologistsStudying our changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologistsExperimenting with how we perceive think and solve problems Personality psychologistsInvestigating our persistent traits Social psychologistExploring how we view and affect one anotherPsychologists also conducts applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problemsCounselling Psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and achieving greater well beingClinical psychologists a branch of psychology that studies assess and treats people with psychological disorderso Counselling and clinical may apply applied research and basic researchPsychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical for example drug treatments as well as psychological therapyChapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceDid We Know it All Along Hindsight bias Hindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it i knew it all along phenomenon Example 1 Psychologist tells group that getting back together after separation makes relationship stronger 2 Psychologist tells group that getting back together after separation makes relationship weaker Both seem reasonably obviousCommon sense describes what has happened as opposed to what will happenOverconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do ExampleAfter knowing the answers to a unscramble hindsight makes it seem obviousHindsight biasoverconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuitionhow we perceive things but scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusionThe Scientific Attitude Empirical approach putting an idea to the test to let the facts prove whether or not its true Scientific attitude being skeptical having doubt not cynical distrust open but not gullible 1 2 important Questions for curious skepticismWhat do you meanHow do you know 2 Humility awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectivesThree attitudes curiosity skepticism and humilityCritical Thinking
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