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Chapter 7-13

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York University
PSYC 2030
Lisa Fiksenbaum

Chapter 7 – Introduction to the Dispositional Strategy Disposition: an enduring, relatively stable personality characteristic Dispositional strategy  people differ in the way they are generally disposed to behave Box 7.1 - Number of Descriptive Adjectives Used Gordan Allport • he found that people often use a large number of descriptive but many are synonymous and thus total number can be reduced • he found that most people actually use a fairly small number of adjectives in describing others they know Dispositions and Genetics • Biological approach  some evidence suggesting that certain dispositions may be transmitted genetically Relationship to People • psychological studies provide some evidence that people often feel more comfortable assigning dispositional adjectives to those they know less well Pervasiveness • Allport and others have noted that dispositions vary in the degree to which they pervade (permeate) a particular personality Early Dispositional Concepts • views assumed that people could be divided into a relatively small number of types, according to their personalities • by knowing an individual’s type, you could predict the way that individuals would behave in a variety of circumstances • Example of early dispositional concept  Hebrews – ‘first formal personality assessment’  identified two types of people: those who should fight and those who should not. • Another historic view  theory of the four temperament: o Ancient Greek gods that the universe could be described in four terms: air, earth, fire and water o Hippocrates extended this to people  Suggested that the body contained four “humors” – blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm that correspond to the elements 1 o Galen later suggested that an excess of any of these humors leads to a characteristic temperament or “personality type”:  Sanguine (hopeful), melancholic (sad), choleric (hot-tempered), or phlegmatic (apathetic) o This has been discarded o Evolved to another theory of the “ingredient”:  Specifically, the widely accepted notion today is that there are (at least) two broad, distinct ingredients in personality, on which people differ in amount:  Extraversion and neuroticism  These two ingredients play a central role in several contemporary personality theories o One of the most striking ideas was that physical appearance indicated personality – the belief advanced by Shakespeare’s Caesar is still popular o There are many other cases in which judgments are based on first impressions and appearance Dispositional Terminology – Dispositional Strategy ­ Several language problems plague this strategy ­ There is no consensus theorists and researchers as to the exact definitions of many technical terms o Extends beyond the absence of clear definitions o Theorists within this strategy often apply different terms to the same concepts o Ex. traits and disposition – use interchangeably o This lack of shared definitions creates confusion both between and within theories and theorist of the Dispositional Strategy Terms of the Dispositional Strategy Disposition Enduring characteristics on which individuals differ; often used synonymously with traits Domain Broad personality factor; sometimes called “supertraits”, domains each encompass a # of narrower traits or facets Facet Narrow elemental personality features of which personality characteristics (dispositions or traits) are compromised 2 Factor Broad domains or “supertraits” often identified through factors analysis Temperament Broad dimensions of personality that can be observed, measured, and used to classify individuals from early infancy; three temperaments have been distinguished – emotionality, activity level, and sociability - it appears that these broad dimensions serve as the foundation for the development of later adult personality, including specific dispositions or traits Trait Synonymous with disposition, but often used in combination with other terms to convey somewhat different ideas or to convey the enduring nature of a characteristic that might in other people appear to be a transient “state” – ex. anxiety trait Type Cluster of characteristics (or dispositions or traits) that tend to occur together in some people; - these can range from a small number of characteristics to a large groupings of distinguishable patterns of characteristics sometimes referred to as supertraits or personality factors Theoretical Assumptions of the Dispositional Strategy The defining assumption of the Dispositional Strategy is that personality is the set of enduring characteristics innate to the person These characteristics influence people’s interactions with others and their environment Individuals differ primarily in the amount of each of these characteristics that they possess These dispositions are presumes to be relatively enduring and stable, producing some degrees of consistency in behaviour 1. Relative Stability of Dispositional If individuals are truly disposed to act in particular ways, then personalities should be fairly stable over time  must be aware of several further distinctions Most dispositional psychologist conceptualize an individual’s enduring dispositions as permanent, inherent elements of personality and distinguish them from temporary conditions, or states ­ temporary conditions  stress, illness, fatigue Example: Trait anxiety vs. State anxiety (Spielberger) 3 Trait anxiety – the disposition to respond with anxiety to situations that are perceived as threatening State anxiety - a condition of the organism characterized by subjective feelings of apprehension and heightened autonomic nervous system activity • Notice – people high in trait anxiety will not necessarily be anxious all the time, but they will become anxious more often and more readily vs. a person w low in trait anxiety State measures vary more than trait measures from one situation to another Disposition: general mode of function – may take different concrete behavioural forms as the individual matures • not merely a habits • they reflect inner consistency - takes more than a simplistic analysis of overt acts Pediatric Psychologist Michael Lewis (1967) – “The Meaning of a Response….” Article • interested in the consistency of infants’ responses to frustration – measured at 1month (remove nipple) and 12months (block reaching mother or toy) • crying was the measure of frustration • responses were negatively correlated  babies who cried at 1 month were not the ones that cried at 12 month ­ Lewis pointed out this behaviour should not mask a deeper consistency  some of the babies were consistently active and others were consistently passive in their responses o At 1 month, motor skills are not yet developed – thus the active baby can do nothing but cry – which the active baby does o But at 12 months of age, crying is a relatively passive response – at this age, the active babies did NOT cry; rather they took some physical action to change the frustrating situation (which is active) Biological approach  everything from behavioural similarity btw parents and offspring to actual shared genetic material is combining to suggest that biological factors do contribute to behaviour ad may account for the relatively stable, enduring quality of personality disposition 2. Consistency and Generality of Dispositions Dispositions have some consistency and generality within a person • Consistency and generality ▯refer to the extent to which a disposition affects behaviour 4 • Ex. A man who is ambitious in his work is also likely to be ambitious and striving in his recreational activities No disposition is expected to appear all the time or in every situation – one reason  a person has many dispositions – different demands brings out diff. demands Nonetheless, some aspects of behaviour are consistent across situations and time 3. Individual differences Individual differences arise from differences in the strength or pervasiveness of particular dispositions Most major dispositions are constructed as bipolar dimensions that are normally distributed (the curve)  people fall everywhere along the continuum from one extreme to the other and it is in their specific location along these (multiple) dimensions that people differ Biological approach – theories advanced to account for these (intraspecies) individual difference center around the theory of evolution and natural selection as mechanism of achieving and maintaining individual differences w/in a species in both appearance and behavioural tendencies Dispositional Personality Research Central concern  major dimensions on which people differ These dimensions are assessed over time and demonstrate intraindividual stability as well as interindividual variability btw members of a species;  that is, to be important to dispositional psychologist a characteristic must remain relatively stable and yet vary considerably across different people to be meaningful Must clearly distinguish one person from another Identifying Personality Dispositions A major task of dispositional psychologists is to identify important dimensions, or dispositions that describe and explain human personality  to do this some fairly clear indicators, or criteria, must exist that test whether a given dimension – a prospective psychological disposition will be useful Dispositional approaches are, in fact, very much psychologies of “amount” Dispositions that do not permit us to say that one person has more or less of some durable characteristic than another person add little to predictive power Dispositional Personality Assessment Dispositional strategy uses almost all the major personality assessment techniques: interviews, projective and situational tests – used to identify various characteristics Reporting also plays a central role 5 “Paper and pencil” self-reports “Reputational” reports in the form of descriptions given by friends, acquaintances… Dispositions are theoretical constructs – not possible to measure them directly  instead, must devise measures of behaviour that yield indicators of various underlying dispositions – self-repots inventories or questionnaires Assumed that there is no one absolute measure of a disposition* “additively” – the strength of any disposition is assumed to be the “sum” of various individual response tendencies • Ex. Robins found that summing all the early signs and symptoms suggesting a disposition towards aggressiveness predicted later criminal behaviour considerably better than any single aggressive or delinquent behaviour during childhood Two formal criteria have been adopted for measuring the adequacy of a dispositional assessment procedure: Convergent Validity: measures of presumably the same disposition may have quite different forms but they should converge and thus correlate highly with one another • Thus, a single measure of a personality disposition has convergent validity to the degree that it is found to be positively correlated with measures of the same disposition Discriminant validity: tests designed to measure different dispositions should discriminate between them; they should not be highly correlated • it has discriminant validity to the extent it is unrelated to measures of other constructs factor analysis – has allowed researchers to determine empirically what behavioural measures do, indeed, “go together”, suggesting a common underlying trait or disposition, as well as highlighting divergence among measures of different traits or dispositions Acknowledge that their tests are imperfect Application of the Dispositional Strategy The underlying assumptions of the Disposition Strategy argue against the malleability of personality Many applications of this strategy focus more on identifying suitable environments.. ex. career.. Biological approach  pharmacology, genetic engineering CHAPTER 8 – Evolution of the Trait Concept Trait; real psychologically meaningful entities 6 Founder of modern Dispositional strategy = Gordon Allport  Heuristic realism – the person who confronts us possesses inside his skin generalized action tendencies (or traits) and that is our job scientifically to discover what they are Did not believe traits were physcial entities – psychological traits serve to explain behaviour rather than just describe it The Search for the Most Important Disposition A fundamental task of the trait approach is to bring some order to the enormous number of possible human traits Dispositional psychologist have tried to identify the most basic or important traits and types by using 3 broad approaches: Lexial approach: based on the assumption that the more important a disposition is, the more often it will be referred to in ordinary language ex. aggressiveness – common in everyday language Theoretical approach: looks to theory to suggest which human dispositions are most central or important ex. psychoanalytic theorist  ego strength Statistical approach: analyzes very large data about many people to identify the basic factors that underlie the data set ALLPORT’S TRAIT APPROACH Traits as the Units for Studying Personality Allport believed that traits are the basic units of personality & had 8 theoretical assertions: 1. traits have more than nominal existence – they are not labels of observed behaviour but are actually apart of a person 2. Traits are more generalized than habits – brushing one’s teeth vs. cleanliness 3. Traits are more dynamic and determine behaviour – traits direct action and are not mere structural artifacts – do not require energizing from anywhere else 4. Traits may be established empirically – based on data 5. Traits are only relatively independent of other traits 6. Traits are not synonymous with moral or social judgment 7. Traits may be viewed either in the light of their personality that contains them (idiographically) or in the light of their distribution in the population (nomothetically) 8. Acts and even habits that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the nonexistence of the trait  in an instance the person’s trait is not being expressed Pervasiveness of Specific Traits 7 Allport proposed that traits differ in the extent that they pervade any given individual’s personality Cardinal disposition: most pervasive traits – dominated individuals – it cannot stay hidden – makes it possessor famous ex. Mother Teresa’s philanthropic attitude Central dispositions: relatively small number of traits that tend to be highly characteristic of a person - thought of when we are writing a recommendation letter  everyone typically has 3-10 Secondary dispositions: operate in only limited settings ex. Preference for food in essence  “nomothetic-idiographic distinction” Allport described two distinct perspectives from which to view human psychological traits: • One view is to think of traits as characteristics that allow comparison of one person with another • Other view is to think of traits as characteristics that are unique to a person and do not invite or even permit comparison with other people Common Traits (Nomothetic approach) Trait comparison across people presume that there are common traits ex. business executive finding a candidate for a job In a large population common traits often have a normal distribution “Patterned Individuality” (Idiographic) Each person has a unique inner organization of motives, traits, and personal style – the result is a patterned individuality that will never again be repeated exactly Some personality psychologists favor a nomothetic approach and seek general principles of behaviour  they often argue that “uniqueness” merely reflects the combination of common traits in varying strengths Allport disagreed, claiming that a person’s traits always interact to form a unique pattern that cannot be fully explained by its always interact to form a unique pattern that cannot be fully explained by its separate parts Ex. analogy – molecule of water vs. hydrogen peroxide – same universals – hydrogen and oxygen – they differ only quantitatively (H 2 or H O2),2but a small quantitative difference leads to totally unlike products Individual traits: refer to those important characteristics of the individual that do not lend themselves to comparison across persons Allport’s research focused on common traits and was nomothetic TWENTIETH-CENTURY TYPOLOGIES 8 The idea that people can be categorized by small number type has been popular since th ancient times  the idea remains common in 20 -century personality psychology The Type A Behaviour Pattern Physicians have long noted that the personalities individuals with heart problems appear to differ from those without such problems 1950s – contribution of psychological and behavioural variables to the development of coronary problems began to be examined systematically Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman – questionnaire to 150 businesspeople in San Francisco  asked for information about the behaviour of friends who had had heart attacks • more than 70% of the respondent’s said “excessive competitive drive and meeting deadlines” were the most characteristics of the heart disease victims they had known • this combination of characteristics = Type A behaviour pattern • they hypothesized that Type A behaviour is a major cause of coronary artery and heart disease Type A Behaviour and Coronary Disease Friedman and Rosenman – undertook longitudinal investigation of the relationship between Type A behaviour and heart disease: • 3500 middle-ages men who had no heart problems initially and obtained health reports for them over the next 8 years • Men displaying Type A behaviour at the beginning of the study were several times more likely to have developed heart problems by the time the study was over vs. those displaying a more easygoing and relaxed behaviour pattern called Type B Subsequent research further expands the picture of Type A individual as constitutionally prone to biochemical and physiological overarousal: • found to produce increased serum cholesterol and catecholamines when under pressure – either may contribute to coronary problems • also found to differ from Type B in certain glandular and metabolic responses  increased risk of coronary difficulties • More arousal when working on challenging tasks • Tend to ignore signs of physical distress • Once an individual has a heart attack, the presence of Type A behaviour is the best single predictor for another one 9 Refining the Type A Construct: The Two Types of Type A Friedman, Hall, and Harris (1985) pointed out that not all highly vigorous individuals are impatient, hostile, and tense, and not all slow-paced individuals are calm, content, and relaxed Subsequent study (Friedman &Booth-Kewley, 1987) compared various groups of middle- aged men – results indicated that the men with the poorest emotional adjustment were most likely to have had heart attacked Another study with college students – analyzed responses to a questionnaire measure of the Type A behaviour pattern and found two relatively independent measure of the Type A behaviour pattern: • Achievement Striving  related to GPA, but not to their physical complaints • Impatience-Irritability  related to physical complaints but not to grades These results and other suggest that a tendency toward irritability and impatience is the active ingredient in the Type A pattern that leads to health risk Recent research suggest that the characteristic most common to illness-prone Type A people is that they are plagued by cynical hostility Some have speculated that this particular brand of hostility (Type A - cynical) characterized by anger, resentment, bitterness, distrust, and suspiciousness, produces problematic interpersonal relationships  these relationships in-turn produce more suspiciousness and resentment, further perpetuating interpersonal problems  further contend that, cynically hostile people must maintain a constant state of intense vigilance to guard off assault and insult from other people  they suggest the possibility of a biological mediated mechanism related to this state of heightened arousal that may link cynical hostility to the development of coronary artery disease and heart attack  these were considered “working hypotheses” Type A Behaviour in Children and Adolescents Karen Matthews developed a way to assess Type A behaviours in children  MYTH MYTH  a rating scale used by teachers, 17 statements describing children’s behaviour Teachers rate the targeted student on a 5 pt scale (extremely characteristic to extremely uncharacteristic) Using MYTH – Matthews and her associated found that, independent of ability (IQ scores), Type A children show more early accomplishments then Type B children • most significantly, research with children from preschool to adolescence then showed, as in adults, Type A children come in two subtypes: 10 o those who are competitive and achievement-oriented in a prosocial way o those who are aggressive, hostile, and impatient CATTELL’S TRAIT APPROACH Robert Cattell – proposed that 3 broad sources of data are require for any analysis that aims to uncover all the major dimensions of personality: • L-Data: gathered from a person’s life record • Q-Data: gathered form questionnaires and interviews – common feature – people answer direct questions about themselves • T-Data: obtained from objective testing – subject is placed in a “miniature situation” and simply acts not knowing the expected behaviour Accordingly, the 3 sources of data must be integrated to capture the full complexity of human personality • Univariate – researcher change one (independent) variable and examine its effects on one other (dependent) variable • Multivariate – examines many variables simultaneously – more applicable to real life Factor Analysis as a Tool “The trouble with measuring traits is that there are too many of them!” - Cattell He introduced the use of factor analysis: a statistical tool that takes a highly sophisticated mathematical approach to personality assessment His intent was to use questionnaires and rating data to discover empirically the natural personality structures that exit in people Psychological variables do not always “go together” (not always consistent  How can personality psychologist deal with this? • correlation coefficien▯allows evaluation of degrees of linear relationship that are less than perfect • Factor analysis  allows analysis of vast numbers of correlation coefficients in search of common elements o Mathematically reduces a large number of relationships (correlations) to a smaller, more manageable, and more comprehensive set of relationships o The smaller group is essentially a summary of the entire array of interconnections o Was developed by Charles Spearman 11 A hypothetical Example of a Factor Analysis Fig. 8.2 (Observation) Step 1: Collecting the Data  Subjects x Measures • ex. students (subject) complete 7 diff. personality tests (measures) Step 2: Producing a correlation matrix  Measures x Measures • shows the exact relationship btw each measure and every other measure Step 3. Extracting factors • data is reduced to small numbers of relatively homogenous dimensions called, factors. • The factors are said to be extracted form the data • Mathematics combines with relatively subjective decisions produce factors Step 4: Determining factor loadings  Factors x Measures • Factors extracted from the pervious step are the “common denominators” of all relationships btw variables  they are like the primary colours from which all other colors are produced • The next step is determining the relationship btw each of the individual measures and each of the factors (ex. aqua is related to more of the blue and green factor) • Factor loading: the correlation of a measure with a particular factor • a variable is said to “load” onto a particular factor to the extent that it is correlated with that factor (Inference) Step 5: Naming factors  Labeling • the point at which inference and subjective judgment most conspicuously enter the process Overall, “there is nothing in the factor-analysis methods themselves that can demonstrate that one factor solution is more scientifically useful than another” and “the correctedness of interpretations based on factor-analytic results must be confirmed by evidence outside the factor analysis itself” Cattell’s 16-Factor Model In The Scientific Analysis of Personality, Cattell reported that he has scientifically derived 16 personality traits by using factor-analytic and related procedures 12 He believed that these factors represented the major dimensions of differences in human personality Three Source Traits Derived from Factor Analysis Cattell called his 16 personality traits “source traits” – the building blocks of personality and can only be discovered through factor analysis If it is really a source trait we would expect the same pattern of results to emerge from L and Q data – should be reflected in all measures of personality LOW-SCORE FACTOR FACTOR HIGH-SCORE DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION Reserved A- vs. A+ Outgoing Less intelligent B- vs. B+ More intelligent Emotional C- vs. C+ Stable Humble E- vs. E+ Assertive Sober F- vs. F+ Happy-go-lucky Expedient G- vs. G+ Conscientious Shy H- vs. H+ Venturesome Tough-minded I- vs. I+ Tender-minded Trusting L- vs. L+ Suspicious Practical M- vs. M+ Imaginative Forthright N- vs. N+ Shrewd (Blunt) Placid O- vs. O+ Apprehensive Conservative Q 1 vs. Q 1 Experimenting Group-tied Q 2 vs. Q 2 Self-sufficient Casual Q 3 vs. Q 3 Controlled Relaxed Q 4 vs. Q 4 Tense HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRAITS The broad consensus among trait researchers today is that personality traits are hierarchically organized, with broad trait dimensions or domains at the top, subsuming narrower but more specific traits that lie below them in hierarchy 13 There is a growing consensus that board and anrrow personality dimensions provide complementary information and that neither is logically more meaningful than the other in isolation EYSENCK’S P-E-N MODEL Han J Eyesenck focused on a considerably smaller number of basic personality types • Types are not categories that a few people fit; rather, types are dimensions on which all persons differ • Types like traits tend to be normally distributed – they are continuous dimensions and most ppl fall around the middle of the distribution range His model of personality is hierarchal: • Types are at the top and therefore exert the most commanding influence • They are composed of traits  traits are composed of habitual responses • At the most specific level, specific responses are the elements from which individuals form habits from all his work he concluded that personality can be understood in terms of three basic personality factors: 1. Psychoticism 2. Extraversion 3. Neuroticism • He also acknowledged the importance of the response style factor Social Desirability, which he construed as a validity or Lie Scale in his own personality inventory • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (Eysenck’s inventory)  these factors appear from data gathered in many different settings and cultures ▯ therefore he contended that they represent universal dimensions of personality • Junior version of the EPQ revealed the same factor structure as found on the adult EPQ • Cautioned that extremes in either direction are rare, and that most ppl are somewhere intermediate 14 Psychoticism (P) • Includes a disposition toward psychosis (a mental disorder characterized by poor contact with reality and inability to effectively perform routine tasks or activities of daily living) and a degree of sociopathy (characterized by an absence of real loyalties to any person, group, or ethical or moral code) • Those high on P tend to be quite impulsive • Been called the opposite of Freud’s “superego strength” • People who score high on P are characterized by 11 dispositions: 1. Solitary, they tend not to care about others 2. Troublesome, they do not fit in 3. Cruel, inhumane 4. Insensitive, lacking empathy or genuine feeling 5. Sensation seeking, under-aroused 6. Hostile towards other, aggressive 7. Eccentric, favoring odd, unusual things 8. Foolhardy, disregarding danger 9. Socially rude, enjoy embarrassing or upsetting others 10.Opposed to accepted social customs 11.Avoidant of close personal interaction, preferring “impersonal” sex • typically higher in men, heritable, higher in prisoners and lower in psychiatric patients who improve than those who failed to improve • A recent study using the EPQ among English uni students revealed that P was associated with poor seminar behaviour and academic performance • Weaver, Walker, McCord and Bellany  gave more than 600 males and female the EPQ and a measure of the way they used TV remote o Those high in P – perceived the remote in terms of ability to control others o Those high in neuroticism – perceived the remote as a device that assisted them avoid content that they wished not to be exposed to (defensive) 15 • P has been correlated with engaging in high-risk sexual practices ex. sex w IV user (among 18-35 yrs old) • There is a negative correlation with P and religious beliefs, church attendance, and freq. of personal prayer • P has been implicated in illicit drug abuse Extraversion • Carl Jung one of the first to offer a description of the introversion-extraversion dimensions of personality • Extraverts: focus their psychic energy outward, towards the world beyond themselves • Introverts: focus their attn and energy inward, toward the self and internal private events in the forms of thoughts, feelings, emotions and fantasy • Eysenck also characterizes ppl based on their orientation toward external and internal Neuroticism • basically a measure of emotional stability and instability – with high neuroticism characterized by greater instability: anxiety, moodiness, restlessness, irritability and aggressiveness • emotional stability is marked by: calm, even temperedness, reliability and emotional control PERSONALITY FACTORS OF ADULTS: COSTAAND McCRAE’S FIVE-FACTOR MODEL Warren Norman factor analyzed a large of adult peer nomination personality rating • extracted five primary factors: o Surgency (extraversion) o Agreeablness o Conscientiousness o Emotional stability o Culture The most significant departure from that five-factor model by Costa and McCrae was that culture was replaced by “Openness” therefore: o Surgency (extraversion) 16 o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Emotional stability o Openness (O)  originality, creativity, independence, and daring • Researchers have repeatedly confirmed that the FFM adequately accounts for the domain level of dispositional terms in adults use to rate the personalities of others • They demonstrated that the FFM structure also applies to questionnaires, self- ratings, and observer reports of personality – provides support that they are the important, underlying dimensions by which individual differences in adult personality can be understood McCrae and Costa point out that two diff. classes of items are possible: • Substantive description: can be verified by others in a variety of ways ex. I am 22 • Evaluative: value judgments ex. I am youthful Personality test items have usually been written to avoid evaluative descriptors The NEO Inventories The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and its successors – the NEO-PI-R and the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are personality inventories developed by Costa and McCrae Basis for item selection is not on empirical keying but on lexical approach (the more imprt the more commonly used) The NEO inventories were developed to for the specific purpose of assessing these FFM factors, and the narrow traits (or facets) that comprise them – has proven to be an excellent tool FFM Facets Critical to the evaluation of any testing instrument is the pool of items it contains Costa and McCrae took the top-down approach in the development of their theory and the NEO inventories  first the major domains were considered and then more specific facets “We regarded domains as multifaceted collections of specific cognitive, affective, and behavioural tendencies that might be grouped in many different ways and we use the term facet to designate the lower level traits in corresponding to these groupings” guidelines they used for faceting the domains of FFM: 17 • First, grouping of facets should be mutually exclusive – any given element in the domain is assigned to only one facet • Second, facets should be consistent in language and meaning with the already existing psychological literature o ex. facets of neuroticism are anxiety, angry hostility…  all existed before development of FFM • Third, facets should be of comparable breadth (range) • Fourth, facets within a domain must show both discriminant validity and convergent validity The facets within a given domain should show at least moderate correlations with one another Optimal matching of treatment is likely to be found at the facet level FFM has become the dominant model in dispositional trait psychology In a recent article Costa and McCrae were interested in the universal personality structure across cultures: ­ all six cultures displayed the same five-factor structure originally described in FFM RELATIONSHIP BTW FFM AND P-E-N MODELS Draycott and Kline have recently shown that the Neuroticism and Extraversion scales of the EPQ-R and the NEO-PI overlap enough to be considered alternative measures of the same construct. Goldberg and Rosolack also compared Eysenck’s P-E-N model with the FFM – they found that the models are in almost full correspondence regarding the dimensions of Neuroticism (N) and Extraversion (E) and that Eysencks psychoticism (P) was closely relatedto the negative pole of A factor, namely antagonism DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY FACTORS AND MENTAL DISORDERS The underlying assumption of this approach is that mental disorders represent maladaptive extremes of the major dimensions of normal personality The DSM distinguishes two classes of mental disorders, which, together with three other dimensions of the patient’s life, constitute a complete psychiatric diagnosis Diagnosis thus involves providing information about patient on five “Axes” Personality Traits DSM defines as “enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself, [which] are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts” 18 The current DSM personality disorders are grouped into three clusters: • Cluster A: Exhibits odd or eccentric behaviour  paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders • Cluster B: Exhibits dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviour antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality disorders • Cluster C: Exhibit anxious or fearful behaviour  avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive and passive aggressive personality disorders Clinical Disorders Personality as defined with the FFM is meaningfully related to disorders of personality (axis II disorders of the DSM scheme) Evidence for the breadth and versatility of the FFM is that it also relates to the so-called clinical disorders of DSM’s axis I (depression, anxiety, substance abuse) The Triad of high Neuroticism, low Extraversion, and low Conscientiousness suggest that an individual is at risk of having or developing an Axis 1 disorder Less obvious, there is a relationship btw high Openness and increased incidence of clinical disorders A number of other associations btw personality factors and problem behaviours have been reported: 1. Widiger and Trull (1992) found that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with extremely high levels Conscientiousness 2. India – hallucinogen abusers were higher then nonusers on both the Neuroticism and Psychoticism scales 3. Bulimia has been found to correlate positively with Neuroticism. 4. US study  alcoholics were found to score higher on the Neuroticism and Psychoticism scales than controls The link btw mental and behavioural disorders and the FFM is not strictly limited to adults: John et al (1994)  compared profiles of delinquents and non-delinquents Externalizing problems: problems related to the external world: aggression, stealing, lying and impulsivity Internalizing problems: involve anxiety, complaints of physical symptoms w/o medical basis, and social w/drawal Externalizing problems were associated with low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness Internalizing problems were associated with high Neuroticism and low Extraversion 19 THE SUPERTRAITS: CONVERGING EVIDENCE The major goals of the Dispositional strategy are to identify and characterize the important dispositions that underlie personality  consensus has begun to emerge among dispositional psychologists that there are a small # of “supertraits” and that research is closing in on them rapidly Extraversion • Cattell labeled his factor A “Reserved vs. Outgoing” • Eysenck concluded that extraversion is one of the major dimensions of personality and many other researchers have found sociability to be one of the three stable, heritable personality temperaments, present from infancy • The tendency to be socially inhibited or uninhibited has been observed as a clear individual difference among infants and young children • Costa and McCrae using ratings and self-report data, found a major factor that they called extraversion • There seems to be little doubt that extraversion is a well-confirmed, major disposition Neuroticism • McCrae and Costa considered neuroticism and extraversion to be the two supertraits about which there is most agreement • Cattell’s factor C, which he called ego strength, appears to correspond closely with neuroticism except that the emphasis is on the nonneurotic, stable end of the dimension • Emotionality has consistently appeared as a major, heritable temperament • People high in neuroticism tend to have few happy thoughts and memories and to recall many negative memories, regardless of whether they are currently in a depressed mood • This tendency toward remembering the negative appears to play a key role in the individual’s susceptibility to clinical depression • When people high in neuroticism are in a depressed mood, their tendency to recall more negative than positive events is particularly pronounced • Neuroticism was found to be associated with mood fluctuation and with vulnerability to depression, even among a nonclinical sample 20 • High neuroticism also appears to predispose individual to seasonal affective disorder • Neuroticism was found to be associated with fewer happier thoughts and memories and more negative ones • High neuroticism seems to be associated with lower self-reliance among both males and females Openness • Individuals high on openness (to experience) tend to be original, imaginative, and daring. Their interests tend to be broad • Openness may manifest itself in a wide range of fantasy experiences, in creative or unusual ideas or products, or in a high degree of tolerance for what others do, say, and think • Persons who score high on openness actively seek more educational opportunities and more challenging work experiences than those low openness • Openness is a dimension of personality that can be detected only when personality measures are broad enough to ask the right questions • Openness appears consistently as a personality trait and is quite stable across adulthood • McCrae found that Cattell’s 16 personality factors could be meaningfully grouped into three clusters, one of which was openness • Openness is considered the most controversial of the big five because of its overlap with intelligence and cultural sophistication • Openness is positively related to intelligence Agreeableness • Agreeable person tends to be sympathetic, cooperative, trusting, and interpersonally supportive • In its extreme form, agreeableness becomes unappealing and may be manifested in a dependent, self-effacing manner in dealing with others • Opposite pole of agreeableness is antagonism, the tendency to set oneself against others 21 • Antagonist person tends to be mistrustful, skeptical, unsympathetic, uncooperative, stubborn, and rude • McCrae and Costa noted the similarity between antagonism and Eysenck’s dimension psychoticism • Agreeableness in its extreme form affects political sentiments Conscientiousness • Conscientious individuals are hardworking, ambitious, and energetic • They preserve in the face of difficulty and tend to be careful and thorough • Also associated with physical fitness • Conscientious students earn better grades and do more extra-credit assignments • The opposite pole of conscientiousness is undirected • Conscientiousness bears similarity to what McClelland called achievement motivation • Conscientiousness if probably a result of learning and socialization and has a definite evaluative component Intelligence • Cattell concluded that his factor B is “nothing less than general intelligence” • Dispositional psychologists are in complete agreement that intelligence is a supertrait in a sense that it is an important, stable dimension on which people differ • Studies of twins reared apart showed that IQ is largely attributable to heredity • There is disagreement on whether intelligence should be thought of as a true personality trait • Some contend that intelligence, enduring, and pervasive, impacts on intellectual and scholarly functioning more so that on interpersonal functioning • Social intelligence is a component of intelligence that is beginning to receive direct attention and study and holds promise as being accepted as a more mainstream personality dimension that general intelligence has to date CHAPTER 9: THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 22 EARLIEST SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MIND AND BODY Modern personality theorizing is based on Neurochemistry (chemical actions in the nervous system) has a prominent role in the theorizing of the biologically based approach to personality The roles of genetics and inheritance and evolutionary processes may have served to shape human behavior patterns The argument is not that personality is itself inherited but rather that no feature of personality is devoid of hereditary influences, direct or indirect Somatypes and temperaments Kretschmer (1926) noted an apparent relationship between physique and specific types of mental disorder among his patients • He described a relationship between body types and psychiatric diagnoses William Sheldon began to try to relate physique to behavior within the “normal” range • Developed taxonomies of both physique to and temperament • Described three basic body types, which he termed: o Endomorphic = plump o Mesomorphic = muscular o Endomorphic = frail o If they did not clearly conform into one of these categories then the would label them “average” build • Sheldon didn’t classify individuals as one type or another; instead he ranked their appearance on each of these dimensions  ranked on a 3-pt system  predominantly one type or another • Described three basic temperament types, which he labeled: o Viscerotonia o Omatonia o Cerebrotonia 23 Viscerotonia Somatonia Cerebrotonia Relaxation in posture and Assertiveness of posture Restraint in posture and movement and movement movement, tightness Love of physical comfort Love of physical adventure Overly fast reactions Slow reaction The energetic characteristic Love of privacy Love of polite ceremony Need for and enjoyment of Mental overintensity, Sociophilia exercise hyperattentionality, apprehensiveness Love of risk and chance Evenness of emotional flow Secretiveness of feelings Bold directedness of and emotional restraint Tolerance manner Complacency Physical courage for Self-conscious motility of eyes and face The untempered combat Sociophobia characteristic Competitive aggressiveness Inhibited social address Smooth, easy communication of feeling, The unrestrained voice Vocal restraint and general extraversion restraint of noise Overmaturity of appearance Youthful intentness of manner and greatness • Looked for relationships between body type and temperament • Studied 200 males  Somatyped: ranked on his three physique types  and rated for the 3 component of temperament over 5 yrs • The results: each of the 3 body types was positively related to one and only one of the temperament types and negatively related to the other 2 o Endomorphy (plump) was associated with viscerotonia (kinda like laid back) o Mesopmorphy (muscular) with somatonia (kinda like energetic, adventurous) o Ectopmorphy (frail) with cerebrotonia (kinda like reserved) 24 • Concluded that physique and temperament probably represented diff. expressions of some basic underlying biological factor or genetic influence • In subsequent studies it was found that physique to be related to school performance, delinquency, occupational choices, and psychopathology • Ultimately Sheldon’s work was criticized for methodology BUT the basic idea that both physical characteristics and personality are, in part biologically determined continues to influence personality psychology THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR What Darwin achieved through his careful observation of a wide variety of species as found in their native environment was to extend these observations to the forces of nature itself operating in the gradual evolution of species to optimize their suitability to the circumstances of their environment Darwin proposed that variations occurring naturally through the course of reproduction in a species might by chance lend an advantage to some members in negotiating the hazards of their environment. In this case, the individual’s likelihood of breeding in enhanced The slightly greater chance of surviving long enough to breed successfully acts to ensure that the genetic material responsible for the deviation will also survive and be passed into the succeeding generation. This idea, of chance variations that produce adaptive advantages, is the foundation of the theory of natural selection Some traits will be more adaptive in some environments than others Variability is the genetic makeup of a species is itself adaptive. Species with greater variability among its members will tend to survive in sufficient numbers to endure and reproduce despite radical changes Stabilizing selection: genetic makeup may develop and be maintained as a product of a changeable environment  not selected for specifically WHAT HAS EVOLVED? Humans possess greater intelligence, linguistic ability and prolonged neural plasticity than most other living species These characteristics enabled survival under adverse conditions and helped humans endure change Central importance ▯CNS The Human Nervous System It is a complex network of layered interwoven, and interacting subsystems 25 Central nervous system (CNS)  the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  all other nerves extending throughout the body • Divided into autonomic and somatic divisions o Autonomic nervous system sends and receives information from the heart, intestines, and other organs. o It controls most involuntary behaviors and responses (reflexes and ongoing metabolic functions)  Composed of two subsystems:  Sympathetic nervous system activates the body for “fight or flight”. Increases heart and breathing rates and prepares the individual for action, while slowing the digestive system  Parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate, increases digestive rate, and promotes the conservation of energy • The somatic nervous system conveys information from the sense organs up to the brain and input from the brain down to the muscles and glands. • It controls voluntary behaviors Human nervous system is composed of two cell types, nerve cells called neurons and glial cells  Glial cells provide support, structure, and insulation for neurons  Neurons receive and convey information throughout the system • Neurons narrow a gap, called a synapse, which separates adjacent neurons  Activity within neurons is primarily electrical  Communication between neurons is chemical Neurochemistry All subsystems of the nervous system communicate within and across one another via neurons Neurons convey electrical impulses down their length (axons) and release chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) at their end points into the space (synapses) between the communication neuron and the receiving neuron 26 Personality and personality differences can be understood based on the chemistry of neurons, synapses, and receptors Neurons make neurotransmitters from precursor chemicals provided through the bloodstream ▯food & more complex chemicals • Can temporarily be increase or decreased by diet, low precursor etc. • The postsynaptic neuron is stimulated by the chemicals via appropriate receptors  Chemicals “bind” with appropriate receptor sites and act to either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron  Stimulation in the form of excitation increases the likelihood of an action potential (the transmission of electrical activity) in the recipient neuron; stimulation in the form of inhibition suppresses the triggering of an action potential  Neurotransmitters separate fairly quickly from the receptors and are either metabolized or “recycled” (through a process called reuptake) by the presynaptic neuron Besides the neurotransmitters, other chemicals may act to stimulate (or inhibit) neurons Hormones represent a second class of chemical messenger in the nervous system • Neurotransmitters are released by neurons at specific end points proximate to the receptor sites of adjacent neurons • Hormones are circulates through the blood supply and can therefore stimulate many more neurons in a short period • Hormones are secreted by glands • The most important gland, “master gland” is the pituitary gland – controls the secretions of other glands throughout the body • Reciprocal relationship w behaviour (influence goes both ways)  Hormones can influence behavior which can direct the secretion of hormones and vice versa • Two types of steroid hormones are estrogen (or “female” hormones) and androgens (or “male” hormones)  Androgens (primarily testosterone) and estrogen occur in both sexes but in different relative amounts 27  Estrogens activate the genes responsible for breast development; androgens activate the genes responsible for body and facial hair  Sex hormones play central roles in reproduction and sexual behavior Neuromodulators: chemical intermediate between the short-range effects of neurotransmitters and the wide-reaching impact of hormones Psychopharmacology: drug treatment for the control of psychiatric symptomatology SOCIOBIOLOGY Sociobiology: study of the evolutionary basis of social behavior People are more altruistic toward their own kinship group than toward strangers Many believe that it was a “moral sense” that distinguished humankind from the animal kingdom Darwin believed that humans appeared moral and might be the only living species capable of “moral” behavior because humans are capable of self-evaluation and cognizant of their past and present behavior, as well as the possibility of a future and of future behavior Moral behavior is a result of our increased intelligence, and much of what appears to be moral or altruistic is good for the survival of the group, the self, and one’s own genes Reciprocal altruism: idea that helping others increases the likelihood that they will help you when you need help Barash hypothesized that many of the problems encountered in modern social life result from the fact that biological evolution proceeds at a much slower pace than cultural evolution • biological evolution has prepared humans, over several millions of years, to deal with the demands and rigors of the forest in which humans originally lived Cultural evolution has brought about demands and rules for behaving that are often not in tune with biological evolution The stress (fight or flight) response that served the survival of the species well thousands of years ago now provides a significant strain on the system because of the new changes we ourselves have engineered in our environment Mating strategies Darwin’s theory is based on an assumption of random mating Individuals are attracted to other members of their species (choose their mates) 28 Assortative mating: idea that people actively choose mates Many factors have been hypothesized to influence mate selction According to the genetic similarity theory: the purpose of assortative mating is to assure the survival of one’s own specific genes • People gravitate toward others with similar genetic makeup for mating Physical appearance may play a role in the identification of suitable others and some have suggested that scent may also provide critical cues Similarity to self is one common criterion in mate selection that appears to apply across many different cultures Trivers introduced the idea that males and females adopt different mating strategies because their roles in reproduction are different • The bases on which women and men select mates are different, and the criteria are similar across cultures • Women are drawn to men who possess a high degree of material resources, dominance within their society, and high status • Men evaluate women in terms of their potential reproductive capacity. They tend to prefer mates who are young, healthy and appear well suited to reproduction • It is adaptive for men and women to value different characteristics in mates • To succeed at reproduction, women must give of their physical resources throughout pregnancy, childbirth, feeding and often protracted childcare • Men generally provide physical shelter and support • There are also realistic constraints on the number of potential offspring each sex if capable of producing • Women are strictly limited based on their physiology, whereas men, given unlimited access to women, are not • Casual observation of “singles” confirms the truth of these different selection criteria, as well as an awareness of the other sex’s selection criteria  Men seeking mates emphasize signs of strength (muscles) and success (expensive homes, cares, clothes, meals) 29  Women emphasize their physical appearance, attempting to highlight health and youthfulness  Playing “hard to get” appears to have an adaptive basis in that men are more interested in women who appear to be in demand among other men  Men tend to mate as widely as possible whereas women are more selective and seek long-term exclusive relationships “Young Male” Syndrome Young male syndrome refers to the fact that human males are most aggressive with one another when they are most likely to be competing for mates • Males commit homicide against unrelated males far more often than females kill other females • These conflicts usually arise between men of similar social status • Milder forms of conflict between males of this age group are also common. They often result from the need to “save face” or preserve status within the immediate social group • Aggression between competitors represents one behavior that is probably biologically influenced  Those (males) who aggressively sought (and won) fertile mates reproduced at a greater rate than those who did not actively and aggressively seek mating opportunities  Males over time may have come to be genetically “wired” to actively pursue mates, and this behavior peaks as their sexual drive peaks  Blood levels of the hormone testosterone are highest in males during this same time frame  Testosterone has also been linked to aggressive behavior • Recent research suggests that the sperm cells of males compete directly for access to the female ovum THE GUEST FOR HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS • Behavioral genetics: the study of the genetic bases of behavior Basic human genetics 30 Dominance gene: degree to which a particular gene overrides the presence of other genes to produce a given characteristic Recessive gene: exert their influence only when paired with other recessive genes The resulting overt characteristic is a person’s phenotype Genotype is the actual genetic material possessed by the individual Many human characteristics are polygenic (influenced by more than a single pair of genes acting in combination) Millions of human genes are located on strands of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) called chromatin Humans possess 23 pairs of chromosomes; one of each pair is contributed by each of their parents Each human set contains about 100,000 individual genes Genes are conveyed to offspring in the form of chromosomes so that in many cases groups or sequences of genes are inherited The presence of one overt characteristic may imply a predisposition to one or more other “linked” traits Genes appearing on any of the first 22 pairs of human chromosomes are autosomal rd The 23 pair of chromosomes in humans are sex chromosomes (sex-linked genes) HOW DO WE KNOW? FAMILY PATTERNS The more closely related people are, the more genetic material they share The logic of these techniques lies in examining similarities in an effort to reveal patterns that follow the operation of math models of human inheritance Pedigree analysis Can be applied to any line of research that tracks the incidence of a characteristic of interest throughout a family line Most often, an index case that displays the characteristic is identified  then information about all available relatives is gathered to trace the appearance of the characteristic in others Different rates of occurrence that diminish with movement away from close relations toward more distant ones generally suggest heritability  contributed to identification of genetic markers 31 • Twin study method  About 2/3 of all twins are fraternal, or dizygotic. They develop from the union of two distinct pairs of ova and sperm  1/3 of twins are identical, or monozygotic (meaning one zygote) twins, who develop from the same ovum and sperm  Shortly after conception, the fertilized egg cell splits into two separate zygotes (the fundamental stage of embryonic development), which proceed to develop into separate fetuses  This method capitalizes on these facts by attempting to identify and measure characteristic or disposition thought to be genetically influenced  Its degree of concordance  mutual occurrence identified in many pairs of twins is determined and compared  Study does not rule out possible effects of shared environment • The Adoptee Method  Adoptee studies address the methodological confound presented by common environment co-varying with shared genes  The only influence the adoptive parents can have is through the environment and the only influence the biological parents can have is biological  two elements are thus separated  Comparing the personality dispositions of adopted children with those of both adoptive and biological parents allows the effects of direct inheritance to be better assessed  By noting the similarities among biological and adopted children brought up in the same home, one can get a further sense of the degree of environmental impact  Power of adoptee method is further enhanced when monozygotic twins, separated at birth and raised in different adoptive households can be identified for study • The Hereditability Index 32  Ultimate goal of this research is to unravel the effects of genetic endowment from those of environment  Heritability refers to the degree to which a particular characteristic is affected by genetic influences  Heritability index provides a mathematical measure of heritability  Heritability scores can range from zero (no evidence of an effect of hereditary) to 1.0 (characteristic is entirely determined by genetic factors)  Determined through incidence data (rates of occurrence of a phenotype in a select group) and so represents only theoretical model of the genetic transmission of the characteristic  Heritability estimates represent an attempt to quantify the genetic component that influences characteristics. The residual variance (whatever remains after genetic influences are accounted for, mathematically expressed as 1.0-heritability) is often attributed to environment ACCUMULATING EVIDENCE FOR THE HERITABILITY OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOR Human Genome Project is an attempt to map the entire sequence of genes contained on the full complement of human chromosomes Many characteristics and behaviors are polygenic and many others are multifactorial, resulting not just from combined effects of multiple genes but also from critical combination of genetic endowment interacting with environmental factors Psychopathology: the study of deviant behavior Inheritance and behavior Loehlin found that monozygotic twins were far more alike than dizygotic twins on a wide range of personality measures Adopted children resembled their biological parents in many personality characteristics, although they had not (since birth) had any direct contact. • These adopted children did not resemble their adoptive parents in personality Three Distinct Temperament Types These temperaments can be identified and measured very early in life and remain relatively consistent across the life span 33 • The temperaments are: sociability, emotionality and activity level • Sociability  Sociability encompasses a wide range of styles dealing with the social environment  Some infants represent low end of the sociability domain. Infants who withdraw from people are “difficult”  Infants toward the high end of the dimension show ease among people, friendliness, and a willingness to interact with just about anyone. These children are “easy”  “Slow to warm up” kids are in between the two extremes  Friendly infants tend to become friendly adolescents and unfriendly infants tend to become unfriendly adolescents  Monozygotic twins are more alike on sociability measures than dizygotic twins  Adopted infants tend to be more similar in sociability to their biological mothers (even with NO CONTACT) – strong genetic support  Sociability overlaps with the adult personality of extraversion • Emotionality  Emotionality: tendency to become physiologically aroused in response to environmental stimuli  Emotionality parallels the negative pole of the adult personality dimension neuroticism  Ease of arousal refers to the degree of stimulation required to elicit signs of arousal, whereas intensity of arousal is measured by the vigor of the resulting response o Distinction is important bc research usually only focuses on one  Evidence suggests that the degree to which a person is emotionally reactive has an innate component and that children differ on this dimension from birth  An unresolved question is the relationship between the tendency to experience positive emotions and the tendency to experience negative 34 emotions. Tellegen argues that the two tendencies are independent of one another • Activity level  Activity level is the “sheer amount of response output” of the individual  Divided further into vigor (intensity of behavior) and tempo (speed of activities)  Studies have shown that hyperactive children may be as much as 10 times more likely than nonhyperactive children to have had hyperactive parents  There are significant correlations between the activity levels of normal children and the activity levels of both parents when they were children Biology And Broad Domains Of Supertraits Temperament types are the first behavioral differences to emerge from the infant • They serve as the foundation of personality, from which more distinct behavioral patterns evolve and are honed through continuous interactions with the environment The next most broad class of individual differences can be labeled domains, or supertraits  patterns of behaviour with wide-ranging implications for interactions with others and with the environment • Composed of narrower traits or facets Temperaments are measured and inferred from very basic observations ex. crying onset, duration and gross physcial movements Measurements of personality types or domains of adults often takes the form of self- report inventories and more elaborate descriptions of specific behavioral tendencies. Descriptions of personality domains are more specific and detailed than those of temperament types Possible biological mechanisms underlying the expression of the domains of Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism • Psychoticism Domain  This domain is captured by combinations of low agreeableness, low conscientiousness, and high openness in their five-factor model (Costa and McCrae) 35  High psychoticism is characterized by a tendency toward psychosis  Schizophrenia may represent the far extreme of one end of the “normal” personality domain of psychoticism • Extraversion Domain  Mounting evidence for the heritability of placement on the Introversion- Extraversion dimension  Finnish twin study: Extraversion and neuroticism were much closely related among monozygotic twins than among dizygotic twins, suggesting a substantial genetic influence  Eysenck proposed that differences in the behavior of introverts and extraverts reflect underlying biological processes. He believed these
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