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PSYC 2110 (131)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 book notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

Chapter 7 book notes • Empirist – infants are tabula rasa (blank state) • Nativist – nature/nurture – all behaviour are inborn Recording: Sensation: no interpretation Perception: interpretation and analysis of sense organs 2 main theories: Enrichment and differentiation theories Differentiation: as better gets older, they get better at choosing diff in env Enrichment: cognition is imp for perception, cognition and knowledge enriching perception of environment Research methods: Babies can’t speak, so we must interpret behaviours already in their mind Franks Looking chamber: infancy research started in 1950’s, 1960’s - • Apparatus used to figure out WHERE baby is looking 1. Visual preference method: show 2 stimuli and measure the time infant looks at each stimulus • Not an indication of what infant prefers 2. Habituation-dishabituation method: we initially present stimulus, over time response to stimulus becomes weaker • Dishabituate – if an infant discriminates b/w 2 objects, they will attend to new object 3. Evoked potential: measures changes in brains electrical activity in response to 4. Hiam-amplitude sucking method: infants use sucking behaviour to tell us if they can discriminate between stimuli and show preferences!! • Higher sucking gives a signal Fetus were learning sounds bf birth Infants had learned mothers unique smell in first week Touch is primary means by which infants acquire knowledge about env Infants recognize mothers voice as a uterus U-shaped autiditory localization function- at first infants turn to sound, by 1 month no response after3-4 months they begin to turn to sound again Otitis media: bacterial infection of middle ear • Occur ottis media early – no language problems Vision: • 2 day old babies can discriminate between stuff • 0-2 months – very young babies prefer to look at high contrast colours that have light and dark in them • <2 months – only see dark blob when looking at check board • 2 months to 1 year: they are better able to discriminate • How to discriminate object from surrounding context? –rod partially hidden by a block • Infants rely heavily on kinetic motion cues to ID distinct forms – some infants inferred rods wholeness from its synchronized movement • After birth: infants vision is focused on large high contrast objects • Infants younger then 2 to 3 months = no stereopsis (convergence of visual images from 2 eyes to produce a single, non-overlapping image that has depth) • Neonate: newborn child or • Monocular – detectable only with 1 eye • A) Relative size – nearer objects look larger • B) Linear perspective: parallel lines come together at a single point in distance • C) Texture gradient: objects that are nearer are more distinct • D) Interposition: near objects obscure far away • Size constancy: perception of objects size as stable, despite changes in retinal image • Visual looming: blinking eyes as object approaches • Kinetic cues: optical expansion (objects moves closer it fills greater proportion of retina) and motion parallax (nearby objects move faster) • Visual cliff – most infants perceive depth and afraid of cliffs • 6-7 month olds are more sensitive to kinetic,monocular and binocu
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