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Chapter 10

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PSYC 2130
Krista Phillips

Chapter 10: I. Freud Himself (1856-1939)  Medical doctor who practiced in Vienna, Austria (1890s-1930s)  Left his native country after Hitler came into power in the 1930s  Spent last few years in London  Began his career as a research neurologist  Went to study the developing field of hypnosis with Jean-Martin Charcot  Moved into practice of psychiatry  Early discovery when patients talked about their psychological problems, sometimes that itself was enough to help or cure them  Hypnosis was used at first to get his patients to talk about difficult topics  Later the use of free association  The talking cure was his greatest contribution to psychotherapy o Making thoughts and fears explicit by saying them out loud brings them into the open, where the conscious, rational mind can deal with them o Psychotherapist can provide emotional support during the patient’s difficult task of trying to figure out what’s going on  Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were the most famous of Freud’s followers  His ideas came from the patients he treated as well as his observations of the workings of his own mind II. The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis a. Psychic Determinism  Determinism the idea that everything that happens has a cause that- in principle, maybe not always in practice- can be identified  The assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a specific cause  Diligence, insight and proper psychoanalytic framework  All seeming contradictions of mind and behaviour can be resolved, and nothing is ever accidental  Conclusion that many important mental processes are unconscious b. Internal Structure  The mind has an internal structure made of parts that can function independently and which, some cases, conflict with each other  The brain is a physical organ, whereas the mind is a psychological result of what the brain and the rest of the body do  Mind divided into 3 parts: o Id irrational and emotional o Ego rational o Superego moral  Modern research in biological and cognitive psychology has not found that the mind is actually divided neatly into 3 parts o Both do support the idea that the mind includes separate and independent structures that process different thoughts and motivations at the same time c. Psychic Conflict and Compromise  Since the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts, it can conflict with itself  Compromise formation is a key tenet of modern psychoanalytic thought  Ego’s main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality, and practicality, and also among many things a person wants at the same time  Result of the compromise is what the individual consciously thinks and does d. Mental Energy  The psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go o Mental, or psychic energy, a.k.a libido  Only fixed and finite amount is available at any given moment  Energy powering one part of the mind is not available for any other part  Principle of the conservation of energy applies to the mind  Freud based it on the Newtonian physics of his day, but some of its implications have not stood the test of time very well  Modern psychoanalytic theory has moved away from Freud’s original conception of psychic energy  The assumption is that it is the mind’s capacity for processing information, rather than its energy, that is limited  One goal of psychoanalysis is to free up more psychic energy- or computing capacity- for the challenges of daily living, by removing neurotic conflicts one by one III. Controversy  The psychoanalytic approach has stirred more controversy than any other approach to personality psychology  Objections to psychoanalysis change with the times o Victorians looked at Freud’s emphasis on sex and sexual energy complained that his theory was “dirty” o Folks of the 21 century look at Freud’s emphasis on what cannot be seen and cannot be conclusively proved, and complain that his theory is “unscientific” IV. Psychoanalysis, Life, and Death  Freud believed 2 motives that are fundamental: life and death  Both motives are always present and competing  Life drive is sometimes called libido, also referred to as the sexual drive, which is what libido means in ordinary conversation  Freud meant that is had to do with the creation, protection, and enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity, and ndowth  Late in his career he posited a 2 fundamental motive, a drive toward death Thanatos  Duality of nature  Entropy  Doctrine of opposites everything implies, even requires, its opposite o Life requires death o One cannot exist without other o Implication of this doctrine is that extremes on any scale may be more similar to each other than either extreme is to the middle o Juxtaposition of the life drive with the death drive is also consistent with the doctrine of opposites V. Psychological Development: "Follow the Money"  How libido becomes invested and then redirected over an individual’s early years  Each stage of psychological development has 3 aspects: o Physical focus where energy is concentrated can gratification is obtained o Psychological theme related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development o Adult character type associated with being fixated in that particular stage, rather than fully developing toward the next one  If an individual fails to resolve the psychological issues that arise at a particular stage, that person will always have some psychological scar tissue related to that stage, and those issues will be troublesome throughout life a. Oral Stage (birth-18mo.) st  The mouth will be the 1 place psychic energy is focused  Physical focus on the mouth, lips, and tongue o He said that for an infant these body parts are sexual organs  The mouth is where the life force and primary feelings of pleasure are concentrated  Psychological theme dependency o A baby is dependent on others for everything needed to live o Lying back and having others provide everything needed (Id)  2 things might go wrong: o Needs might not be fulfilled  The baby may develop a basic mistrust of other people and never be able to Doctrine deal adequately with dependency relationships of o Needs are fulfilled so instantly and automatically that it never occurs to them thaopposites the world could respond differently is seen  Any issue that comes later in life involving dependency, passivity, and activity might cause anxiety but they may be unaware as to why here 
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