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Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12 NOTES - Motivation

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

CHAPTER 12 Ethology • following the lead of Darwin, ethologists have concentrated primarily on the study of the expressive movements of organisms • they do not see emotion as a separate term • for the ethologists, motivation and emotion are seen as two names for the same concept: the buildup of action specific energy Intention Movements • expressive movements/bolding: behaviour patterns that have become differentiated into signals • a dog's baring of teeth is an expressive movement indicative of emotion • intention movements will be informative to the extent that other members of the individuals group recognize them as a signal of behaviour that may occur • recognition of anger for example, would help an individual avoid damaging fights • intention movements serve the adaptive purpose of coordinating behaviour between individuals so that they can exist in close proximity to others of their species and interact efficiently Nonverbal Cues • among primates, facial expressions, gestures, and calls often accompany emotional behaviour • do these serve as nonverbal cues to the emotional state of an individual animal? • Miller put rhesus monkeys into an experimental situation in which they had to avoid shock b pressing a key whenever a light came on • after he had shown that they could learn to avoid the shock, he altered the situation so that: one monkey could see the stimulus but could not stop the shock, nd one monkey could stop the shock but could not see the stimulus (but the 2 monkey could see the first monkey through a TV) • the first monkey's facial expression hanged when the light came on and the second monkey observed that change and learned to press the key to avoid the shock • thus, these monkeys could both “send” appropriate facial expressions and “receive” these expressions and alter their behaviour as a result • the 2 monkey wasn’t being altruistic by pressing the key it was pressing it so that it would not get shocked itself • monkeys that are isolated are incapable of sending and receiving signals • on effect of isolation, then, may be the disruption of the ability to use nonverbal, emotion-produced cues • many behaviours used by monkeys in communication are species' specific and therefore innate, but that the proper development of these behaviours depends on adequate experience MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 1 •isolated monkeys may be deficient in emotional communication because their innate abilities have not had the proper experience to develop •in another study, participant observed the facial reactions of the person viewing the slides and attempted to predict what type of slide they were viewing • accuracy of predicting categories of emotion, was marginal •but in terms of pleasantness and unpleasantness, prediction was much better •we are good at sending and retrieving signals that reflect our general mood but not so good at indicating non-verbally why we feel the way we do • women communicated emotion non verbally better than men •they were better senders because they were more facially expressive •girls have been taught to express emotion openly and boys have been taught to inhibit their feelings • at age 4 however boys and girls had only a small difference in sending ability •in Robert Rosenthal's study they developed a device that allows them to measure a person's sensitivity to non-verbal cues •they measured reaction to nonverbal cues •most people can correctly identify various emotional states, even when given only brief exposures •women were more sensitive than men to nonverbal cues (especially body cues) at detecting and sending nonverbal information •a study of young infants •infants 3 to 5 weeks old fixated the face of an adult only 22% of the time during testing •7 week old fixated more than 87% of the time •eyes were most fixated on, even when the adult was talking •eyes become important fixation points because they serve as the source of signals or cues in social situations •all of these studies show that humans are sensitive to the nonverbal expression of emotion and that, while learning is involved in this ability, some components of emotional expression and recognition is innate Brain Mechanisms of Emotion •bodily changes also associated with emotion •limbic system: hypothalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and amygdala •although structures within the limbic system are involved with emotion, it is also involved in many others things •also, some other structures not in the limbic system are involved with emotion MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 2 • the amygdala has been strongly implicated as the primary structure concerned with the production and expression of emotion • according to Carlon, an emotional response consists of three components: (Carlson suggests that the integration of these 3 is performed by the amygdala) 1. emotional behaviours (muscular changes e.g. Clenching first when angry) 2. autonomic changes (make energy quickly available to prepare the individual for more intense behaviours, such as rapid movements) 3. hormonal changes (the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla, help sustain the autonomic system) The Amygdala, Orbital Frontal Cortex, & Cingulate Cortex • the amygdala is a complex structure located within the temporal lobes an consists of 12 different nuclei/groups of cells • the major divisions are: 1. lateral and basolateral nuclei 2. the central nucleus 3. the basal nucleus • inputs to the amygdala come from the thalamus and sensory cortex • some of these inputs come directly to the amygdala and provides a means whereby sensory information could stimulate emotion automatically • additional inputs from the hippo-campus provide a route through which cortical associations could influence emotion and provide a route whereby conditioning of fear could occur • inputs to and from the orbital frontal cortex (a brain region close to the eye sockets) provide information to the amygdala that may be important for emotionality produced by social situations • the importance of this region has been known for some time and the most famous case for a change in emotionality from damage to this area is that of Phineas Gage • Gage suffered a damage to the brain & survived the accident and in most ways survived fully • however he suffered changes in personality • after the accident he was very irresponsible • the ventromedial frontal cortex = orbitofrontal cortex + anterior cingulate cortex • the neurotransmitter serotonin appears to be a major player in the modulation of PF neuronal activity as well as dopamine • the anterior Cingulate cortex ha connections with the amygdala and has been implicated in cognitive-emotional interactions MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 3 • amygdala appears to exert control over many of the changes that are produced when emotions occur • has connections to the hypothalamus that could provide the necessary pathway for autonomic changes as a result of emotional situations connects to the brain stem providing a route to which it can influence behaviours associated with emotionality • has connections to the orbital frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex which could provide a means whereby cognition and emotion interact • has been implicated in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion, especially fear • in humans amygdala activation “is related to attempts to process stimuli that have some biologically relevant but presently unclear predictive value” • the amygdala attempts to do this by modulate vigilance (the action or state of keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties) to gain additional information to resolve the situation • e.g. Sensitivity to facial expressions of fear ought to lead to the processing of additional cues from the environment in order to understand the situation • therefore Whalen suggests that the amygdala has a more general function, beyond just fear processing, of modulating vigilance in ambiguous, but biologically important situations Emotion from a Learning Perspective • emotions such as fear can lead to new instrumental behaviours that reduce or remove the organism from the emotion-producing situation Classical Conditioning and Emotion • many emotions that we experience result from the accidental pairing of stimuli in the environment with things that happen to us • e.g. Why some old songs make us feel good, because it has been associate with good experiences in the past • similarly, stimuli associated with bad experiences in the past all up negative emotionality which is a situation termed as conditioned fear • e.g. A child freighted by a freely roaming dog will appear fearful around that dog even if it is on a leash later • the classically conditioned response generalized to other similar stimuli • the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) appears to be important for the association of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in conditioned fear situations • other research suggests that the BLA is almost important “in the emotional modulation of memory storage” • it may improve memory in emotionally arousing situations MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 4 • the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved with the control of the hypothalamus, mid-brain, and brain stem areas concerned with arousal and responding • it is also been shown to be involved in some type of conditioned responses • CeA does form simple CS-UR (conditioned stimulus- unconditioned response) associations which do not depend upon a specific U • they are independent of the identity and current motivational value of the US • still other types of Cr appear to require both BLA and CeA involvement Operant/Instrumental Conditioning and Emotion • in operant conditioning the consequence of a response alter the future probability of it • does such a relationship between a response and its consequences also have an emotional component? • When a response is followed by a reinforcer, we find it to be an emotionally positive experience and vice versa • as noted earlier, the amygdala and its associated areas such as the orbital frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are involved in the processes of emotion- all three of these areas are also connected to the nucleus accumbens (Acb) either directly or indirectly • the Acb has been shown to be crucial for the reinforcing effects of natural reinforcers such as food, water, and sex as well as artificial reinforcers such as drugs • both natural and artificial reinforcers stimulate the release of dopamine (DA) in the Acb and are thought by some researchers to produce the pleasurable effects of reinforcement • however, aversive stimuli can also cause the release of DA in the nucleus accumbens • the DA and NDMA glutamate receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats also play a crucial role in producing operant/instrumental conditioning • the mPFC appears to be a part of a network of brain regions concerned with both learning and motivation In summary, it seems that circuitry including frontal areas of the cortex (OFC, ACC, mPFC), the amygdala (especially BLA and CeA), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) are importantly involved in the association of responses and their consequences in operant/instrumental conditioning. Emotional Modeling • Emotionality can also be learned through the observation of others • such learning is usually called observational learning or modeling • according to Bandura, we are sensitive to the facial, vocal, and postural indications of emotional arousal in others; especially those who are important to us • this emotional learning via observation appears to occur very early in development MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 5 • 12 month old infants avoided an object and showed negative emotion toward the object after they had seen an adult on TV react negative to it • Bandura suggested people may develop phobias from seeing a model behave fearfully toward • people may learn prejudices toward groups by observing a model The Preparedness of Emotional Learning • general process learning theory: one response can be learned just as easily as any other • this theory was modified • the type of response that we ask an organism to learn makes a differences • prepared associations: events that can be quickly and easily associated • contra-prepared associations: organism apparently cannot learn • unprepared: can learn but with numerous experiences with the experience • preparedness hypothesis: different species will have different prepared, unprepared, and contra-prepared associations • phobia is defined as an unreasonable fear of some object or situations many theorists have regarded the development of phobic behaviour as an instance of classical conditioning • neutral stimuli we think the inside of en elevator might become associated with intense anxiety triggered by the elevator becoming stuck between floors several problems exist with this type of interpretation: 1. phobias are very resistant to extinction, while normal lab conditioning of fear extinguishes more easily • exposure to a stimulus that has elicited the fear in the past now without the fear weakens conditioned fear • presentation of phobic objects on the other hand does not diminish fear and may even enhance it 1. sometimes phobic reactions appear to have been learned in as little as one exposure • conditioned fear takes about 3 to 6 trials to become established 1. conditioned stimuli are supposed to be arbitrary • any neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus if paired with some UCS e.g. An anxiety producing UCS • but most common phobias appear to present a non-arbitrary set of conditions (fear of snakes, heights, dark, closed spaces) 1. most phobic reactions are to objects of natural origin MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 6 • evolution has adapted us to be sensitive to forming relationships between fearfulness and natural phenomenon such as spiders and snakes because these can be dangerous • not all phobias are examples of prepared associations; some people are phobic of air planes or even symbols e.g. The number 13 • both phobias and prepare behaviours can be learned in one trial • both concern a nonaribitrary set of situations • both are very resistant to extinction • both are probably noncogntiive in nature • the overlap in the characteristics of phobias and prepared behaviour is strong • certain phobias may develop because humans are prepared to make associations between fear and particular situations Emotion from a Cognitive Perspective • cognitive approaches to the understanding of emotion stress the importance of Vientiane appraisal • according to this view, bodily changes are insufficient for the experience of true emotion; we must assess a situation as emotion producing before we experience emotion • Schachter's model was one of the first to suggest the importance of a cognitive processing • in his model, the critical element determining the particular emotion experienced is the cognitive label; although arousal was deemed necessary, it was not though to differentiate among the various emotions one could feel • some theorists say that cognition alone may be sufficient for the experience of emotion • for example, altering the cognitive process of participants before viewing a gruesome film affected the quality and intensity of the emotions produced by the film Attribution of Emotion • Valins asked male college students to view slides of semi-nude females • they told the men that their heart rate was being monitored and that they could hear their heart beating as the slides were presented • the participants didn’t realize that the heart rate feedback was false • when later asked, the participants judged the slides associated with a heart rate changes either up or down to be more attractive than those associated with no change • this data suggests that at least for ratings of liking, we form a hypothesis and then attempt to test it by searching for relevant cues in ourselves or our environmental • “my heart rate changed. Why? Because the person in this photo is attractive” MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 7 • even after debriefing, the participants still rated pictures associated with the fake heart rat changes as more attractive • once formed, emotions appear difficult to change • in another study they showed male participants pictures of male nudes • they provided false heart rate information and also recorded actual heart rates • the researchers found that the false heart rate information was not related to the dislike of the slides as rated by the participants, but the participants' actual heart rate was • this result suggests that the attractiveness sores in Valin's studies may have resulted notably from the false feedback but also from actual physiological changes • the false feedback effect may result from subtle cues provided by the experimenter to indicate to the participant how to respond called: demand characteristics • these experimenter demand characteristics, rather than an attribution that one is aroused, may therefore be responsible for the effects obtained in false feedback situations • other researchers have provided evidence that attentional processes are important for Valin's effect • participants in the study were asked to view unpleasant slides while listening to either false heart rate feedback or electronic beeps • half the students were told to attend to the slide and the auditory feedback • other group was told to attend only to the slides • the type of feedback had no effect (the heart rate feedback did not change ratings any more than the beeps) • participants who were told to pay attention to the auditory feedback displayed the Valin's effect; participants who were told to ignore the feedback were unaffected • self-monitoring: people are high self-monitors are motivated to change their behaviour to meet the demands of a situations these individuals analyze their surroundings and tend to alter their behaviour • they are good role players • low self-monitors are also aware of their surroundings but they are motivated to engage in behaviour that is consistent with their internal states (attitudes and feelings) • low self-monitors tend to behave more consistent across different situations • high self-monitors are more sensitive to external emotional cues • high self-monitors attributed the bogus feedback to their liking of the slide with which it was paired • low self-monitors were not affected by the false heart rate feedback • our perceptions of the degree to which an event was controllable will influence the emotions we feel • expectancies and emotion are seen as guiding motivated behaviour MOTIVATION CHAPTER 12 page 8 •if someone has a lunch date and misses it because they went to lunch with someone else, that was internal and controllable •internal and controllable excuses tend to produce aversive emotional reactions •if she said she missed it because of a car crash, that is external and uncontrollable   EMOTION AS PRIMARY AND UNIVERSAL •Robert Zajonc has argued for the primacy affect; that is, he has argued that emotion is independent of, and can occur prior to, any cognition •Lazarus proposed that cognition must precede emotion •Zajonc proposed that although cognition is often associated with emotion, emotion can occur without cognition and prior to any cognitive processing Arguments in favour of the primacy of emotion: 1. Zajonc argued that affect is basic, that is, that it is difficult to know whether animals other than humans cognitively process information, he reasoned that the system that generates affect must be independent of cognitive processing o Ex. A rabbit would rarely have time to assess all the attributes of a snake in or der to decide whether to fear it; the rabbit feels fear and reacts 1. Emotions are inescapable o Affective reactions seem to occur whether we want them or not o We can sometimes learn to control the expression of emotion, but we do not seem able to control the feeling 1. Once an affective reaction occurs, subsequent instances of the emotion are very hard to alter o We encounter great difficulty in trying to change an emotional reaction because emotional judgements feel right o Emotional reactions don't seem open to logic; if we simply do not like a particular music, we simply do not like it, period o According to Zajonc, if cognitive processing occurs prior to emotion, then logic should affect our emotion 2. Emotional reactions are difficult to verbalize o Ex. When we meet someone for the first time, we form either a positive or negative impression of the person, but we cannot often say why we feel the way we do o Communication of emotion is largely nonverbal o Zajonc proposed that our difficulty in verbalizing emotions suggests that emotion lies outside the cognitive system •Zajonc notes that there is a direct link between the thalamus and the amygdala that may be a possible noncognitive mechanism of emotion •Because it
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