The amygdala, orbital frontal cortex, & cingulate cortex: the amygdala is a complex structure located within the temporal lobes an consists of 12 different nuclei/groups of cells, the major divisions are: Pf neuronal activity as well as dopamine: the anterior cingulate cortex ha connections with the amygdala and has been implicated in cognitive-emotional interactions. The preparedness of emotional learning phobias are very resistant to extinction, while normal lab conditioning of. 1. one exposure: conditioned fear takes about 3 to 6 trials to become established conditioned stimuli are supposed to be arbitrary. 1: any neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus if paired with some ucs e. g. an anxiety producing ucs, but most common phobias appear to present a non-arbitrary set of conditions (fear of snakes, heights, dark, closed spaces) 1. most phobic reactions are to objects of natural origin. Attribution of emotion: cognitive approaches to the understanding of emotion stress the importance of.