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PSYC 2520 (20)
Chapter 3

Ch. 3 - Ethics in Research.pdf

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York University
PSYC 2520
Josee Rivest

Ch. 3 - Ethics in Research Tuesday, October 30, 20121:01 AM PSYC 2520: Introduction to Experimental Psychology Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer (7th Ed. 2012) Rosnow& Rosenthal Chapter 3: Ethical Considerations and Guidelines • Ethics is understood as referring to conduct that is considered “morally right” or “morally wrong” as specified by codified and culturally ingrained principles, constraints, rules, and guidelines. • Active Deception-- manipulating the truth • Passive Deception-- spying on people or omitting pertinent information • The Belmont Report (1970): ○ Established 3 principles as an ethical foundation of human subjects research:  1) Respect for persons  2) Nonmaleficence  3) Justice ○ Established the use of informed-consent procedures ○ Established institutional review boards • Five ethical principles: ○ 1) Respect for persons and their autonomy  Maintained using informed consent ○ 2) An obligation not to psychological or physical harm (nonmaleficence) and to strive to do research that is meaningful or potentially beneficial in advancing knowledge or well-being (beneficence)  All proposed research studies will be carefully appraised by a panel of evaluators (an institutional review board [IRB]) ○ 3) The pursuit and promotion of justice (injustice occurs when an individual is unreasonably denied a benefit or gain to which he or she is entitled, or when some burden is imposed excessively or undeservedly on individuals)  The burden and benefits of the study are intended to be distributed fairly ○ 4) The establishment of a relationship of trust between researchers and research participants  A traditional way to establish trust is to use confidentiality ○ 5) A fidelity to professional responsibilities, scientific integrity, and accountability • Four components of an informed consent agreement: ○ 1) Describes the nature of the study ○ 2) Describes any potential risk to the participants ○ 3) Describes the procedure for ensuring the confidentiality of the data ○ 4) Describes the voluntary nature of the participants’ cooperation and their freedom to withdraw at any time without prejudice or penalty. • Situations in which informed consent is unnecessary or impossible: ○ Archival studies using public records ○ Risk-free experiments in which instituting informed consent would
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