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Chapter 1

Ch. 1 - Introduction to Statistics.docx

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PSYC 2530
Anne Russon

Ch. 1 - Introduction to Statistics Sunday, November 11, 2012 5:47 PM PSYC 2530 Introductory Statistics Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics  Score = measurement of a variable  Parameter → population  Statisti→ sample o Every population parameter has a corresponding sample statistic  Descriptive Statistics: manage data  Inferential Statistics: generalize from sample to population o Goal: Are results due to chance or an actual difference?  Sampling error is the naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter. o Sample statistics vary from one sample to another and typically are different from corresponding population parameters o Usually due to chance  In the correlational method, two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them o Cannot prove causation  Experimental method o Goal: determine cause and effect relationship between two variables  Confounded: when there is more than one explanation for the results of an experiment  Participant variables (age, gender, intelligence, etc.) and environmental variables (lighting, time of day, etc.) must be the same for all participants  Extraneous variables are controlled by: o Random assignment (each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions) o Matching (matching participants to a group to make sure they are equivalent) o Holding variables constant (e.g., holding age of participants constant)  Non-experimental research: o Correlational study (one group with two variables measured for each individual) o Nonequivalent groups study (compares scores between pre-existing groups) o Pre-post study (compares scores before and after)  In a non-experimental study, the “independent variable” that is used to create different groups of scores is often called the quasi-independent variable  [Hypothetical] constructs are internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior (e.g., intelligence, anxiety, hunger
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