CHAPTER 5: THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGYAT THE INTERFACE WITH
This chapter focuses on the historical figures and their work to account for
development of psychology in the delivery of mental health services.
ENLIGHTENMENT AND MADNESS
Age of Enlightenment: The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the
Enlightenment) is the era in Western philosophy, intellectual, scientific and
cultural life, centered upon the 18th century, in which reason was advocated as
the primary source for legitimacy and authority.
- men were regarded as creatres of reason while women were regarded as
creatures of emotion.
Hippocrates (460-370 BC) said that health was regulated by the balance of four
humors in the body including black bile, yellow bile. Phlegm and blood.
-He was the first to formulate the first medical theory.
-During Enligtenement madness was considered to be due to loss of reason.
Vicenzo Chirugi (17 century) –Italian physician , he outlawed chains to
restrain patients and introduced more humanitarian reforms to the psychiatric
He also specialized in dermatology, left his mark of history of psychiatry and
wrote on other subjects.
Phillipe Pinel (17 Century) – he is often described as the father of modern
-He was a French Physician.
- introduced a new regime for patients to be relased from shackels and treated
as reasonable humans, able , with help to regain their faculties of reason. William Tuke and Quackers ( 17 Century) = organized a model of God
fearing home as the setting for their new treatment.
Their they helped patient with attitude of kindness , personal care and
opportunities to retrieve their health back.
-This gave rise to Moral Treatment (18 to 19 Century) = based on regarding
patients as inherently reasonable and providing humane care that would help
them return to their reason. Patients were expected to act reasonably and
contribute their labor by completing household tasks.
- Physicians who treated insane were called alienists, since it was believed that
due to the cause of mental disorder one is become alienated.
- After the moral treatment failed, discovery of Germ theory became
maintstream which explained cholrea, typhoid and other diseases.
This era was called Therapeutic Nihilism. Therapeutic nihilism is a
argument that curing people, or societies, of their ills by treatment is
impossible., it was connected to the idea that many "cures" do more harm
than good, and that one should instead encourage the body to heal itself.
- This is when Freud stepped in with the Theory of Psychoanalysis.
Fraz Anton Mesmer (17 --18 Century)
believed that just as there are tides in the ocean affected by celestial motion so
must there be tides in the human body affected by the movement of Plants, and
stars. He referred to these tides as animal magnetism and explored how one
can manipulate animal magnetism to treat illness.
- He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.
-believed humans body have a magnetic force which could be manipulated with
the use of animal magnetism.
-Mesmer was investigated and branded as fake and was told to flee. H