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Chapter 3

Abnormal Psychology (Can Edition) Chapters 3,4,5,6

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York University
PSYC 3140
Leah Shapira

Chapter 3 Causal Factors and Viewpoints Necessary Sufficient and Contributory Causesy Etiology is the causal pattern of abnormal behavior y A necessary cause eg cause X is a condition that exists for a disorder eg disorder Y to occur ie general paresis Y could not occur without syphilis X If Y occurs then X must has preceded it y A sufficient cause eg cause X of a disorder is condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder eg disorder Y ie hopelessness X is a sufficient cause of depression Y X occurs then Y will also occur y A contributory cause eg cause X is one that increases the probability of the development of a disorder eg disorder Y but is neither necessary nor sufficient for the disorder to occur ie parent rejection could increase the probability that a child will later have problems with personal relationships X increases probability of Y y Factors that occur relatively early in life may nor show their effects for many years these would be distal causal factors that may contribute to predisposing or development disordersy Factors that operate shortly before the occurrence of the symptoms of a disorder would be consider proximal causal factors This would be something such as divorce or disappointment at work or schooly A reinforcing contributor would be a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior that is already occurring may occur when someone is babied when they are sick and like the attention so continue to be ill DiathesisStress Model y Diathesis predisposition or vulnerability toward developing a disorder It can derive from biological psychosocial and sociocultural causal factorsy Many psych disorders are believed to develop from diathesis or some kind of stressors this is known as the diathesis stress model of abnormal behaviory Addictive model suggests people with high levels of diathesis may need only a small amount of stress before a disorder develops y Interactive model some amount of diathesis is needed before stress can take any effecty Since late 1980s attention has been placed on the concept of protective factors which are influences that modify a persons environment y Resilience ability to adapt successfully to even very difficult circumstances 1 good outcomes despite high risk status 2 sustained competence under threat and 3 recovery from traumay If someone weak to begin with then serious stressors damage one or more system this may happen when a parent dies and the level of challenge far exceeds human capacity to adapt y Stressors sometimes indicate whether a child will grow up in a normal adaptive way as opposed to a maladaptive way This has been the focus on the rapidly growing field of developmental psychopathology which focuses on determining what is abnormal at any point in developmentViewpoints for understanding the Cause of Abnormal Behaviory Biopsychosocial viewpoint acknowledges that biological psychosocial and sociocultural factors all interact and play a role in psychopathology and treatment The Biological viewpoint and biological factors y The disorders first recognized as having biological or organic components were those associated with gross destruction of brain tissueDamage to certain areas in the brain can cause memory loss and damage to the left hemisphere that occurs during stroke can cause depressiony Four categories that seem particularly relevant to development of maladaptive behaviorNeurotransmitter and hormonal imbalances of the brainGenetic vulnerabilitiesTemperament Brain dysfunction and neural plasticityNeurotransmitter and Hormonal Imbalance y The communication between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron is the synapsea tiny fluidfilled space between neurons These interneural transmissions are accomplished by neurotransmitterschemical substances that are released into the synapse by the presynaptic neuron when a nerve impulse occurs Imbalance of the Neurotransmittersy Neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain can result in abnormal behavior sometimes psychological stress can bring on neurotransmitter imbalance y There may be excessive production and releases of the transmitter substance in the synapse causing functional excess in levels of that neurotransmitter y May be dysfunction in normal processes y Problems with the receptors in the postsynaptic neuron y Nonephrine dopamine serotonin gamma aminbutyric acid GABA and the first 3 belong to a class called monoamines and synthesize from a single amino acid Serotonin has been found to have important effects on the way we think GABA is strongly implicated in reducing anxiety aswell as other emotional states from high levels of arousalBOX 31 Neurotransmission and Abnormal Behaviory The synapse is the site of neural transmission y When a nerve pulse reaches the axon endings the synaptic vesicles travel to the presynaptic membrane of the axon and release the neurotransmitter substance into the synapse y Once the neurotransmitter substance is released into the synapse it does not stay around indefinitely Sometimes the neurotransmitters are quickly destroys by an
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