Identify the characteristics of health compromising behaviors:
• Health compromising behaviors are those that threaten or undermine good health, either
in the present or in the future. Many of these behaviors cluster and first emerge in
Describe and define substance dependence:
• Substance dependence involves the repeated self-administration of a substance that
results in tolerance withdrawal and compulsive behavior.
• Harm reduction is an approach to dealing with substance abuse that aims to reduce but
not necessarily eliminate substance abuse to help minimize the associated health and
• Psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs result in cognitive and affective changes
when ingested that can alter behavior in ways that can result in a variety of physical
mental and social problems.
Understanding how alcoholism and problem drinking compromise health:
• Alcoholism accounts for thousands of deaths each year through cirrhosis, cancer, fetal
alcohol syndrome, and accidents connected with drunk driving.
• Alcoholism and problem drinking encompass a wide range of specific behavior problems
with associated physiological and psychological needs.
• Alcoholism has a genetic component and is tied to socio-demographic factors, such as
low socio-economic status. Drinking also arises in an effort to buffer the impact of stress
and appears to peak between the ages 18 and 25.
• Most treatment programs for alcoholism use broad-spectrum cognitive behavioral
approaches. Many begin with an inpatient “drying-out” period followed by the use of
cognitive behavioral change methods, such as aversion therapy and relapse –prevention
• The best predictor of success is the patient. Alcoholics with mild drinking problems and a
supportive financially secure environment do better than those without such supports.
Explain how smoking ins harmful for health and what factors influence smoking:
• Smoking accounts for more than 45,000 deaths annually in Canada due to heart
disease, cancer, and lung disorders. Smoking adds to and may even exacerbate other
risk factors associated with CHD. • Several theories have attempted to explain the addictive nature of smoking including
theories of nicotine regulation and those that emphasize nicotine’s role as a
• In the past few decades attitudes towards smoking have changed dramatically for the
negative, largely due to the mass media. Attitude change has kept some people from
beginning smoking , motivated many to stop, and kept some former smokers from
• Smoking is highly resistant to change. Even after successfully stopping for a short period
of time most people relapse. Factors that contribute to relapse include addiction and the
loss of an effective coping technique for dealing with social situations, among other
Describe eating disorders:
• The obsession with weight control has induced many people to diet, and may contribute
to the epidemic of eating disorders in the adolescent female population in western
• Anorexia nervosa is an obsessive disorder amounting to self-starvation in which an
individual diets and exercises to the point that body weight is grossly below optimum
• Bulimia is characterized by alternating cycles of binge eating and purging through such
techniques as vomiting , laxative abuse, extreme dieting or fasting and drug or alcohol
Addiction Life-skills-training approach Self help aids
Alcoholism Passive smoking Smoking prevention programs