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Chapter 14

Health Pschology Chapter 14.docx

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

1 Health Psychology Chapter 14 Psychoneuroimmunoligy aids cancer and arthritis Immune system was one of poorly understood systems Psychoneuroimmunoligy: the interactions b.w. behavioural neuroendrocine and immunological processes of adaptation Immune system: o Surveillance system of body o Distinguishes b.w. self and invaders Profile of the immune system o Natural/specific o 1. Natural Defence against pathogens (cells not specific but overall) Largest in natural is granuclytses Include netrohils and macrophages; both phagocystic engulf target pathogens Neutrops/macs-congregate at site of injury and release toxins Macs-release cytokines-lead to inflammation and fever Natural killers also fight(signal for potential malignancies) o 2. Specific Slower/specific Lymphocytes involved-receptor sites-fit with antigens respond to specific invaders Proliferative response: Antigens specific cells divide o Both work together Humeral and cell mediated immunity o Humeral: B lymphocytes mediate Protect from bacteria o Cell mediated: T lymphocytes from thymus gland Tc(cytotoxic) Respond to specifics and kill by producing toxic Helper T c ells enhance Tc(cytotoxic) functions/B cells by producing lympokines which serve a counter regulatory immune function that suppresses immune activity Assessing immunocompetence: o General functioning o 1. Measure number of diff. Cells in immune system by looking at blood 2 Counting T/B/NK and assessing amounts of circulating lymphokines/antibody levels o o 2. Assessing functioning of immune cells Examining activation/proliferation/transformation/cytotoxity of cells Lymphocyte-assessing ability to kill invaders Mitogen- assessing ability to reproduce when stimulated by chemical Phagocytotic- ability of white cells to ingest More proliferation better the cells are o 3. Latent(inactive) virus functioning If body produces antibodies to inactive; not working well o 4. Antibodies to vaccine Antibody levels to vaccine injection levels I.e.: lower antibody levels to hep B vaccine show poorer initial T cell proliferation response Higher stress/substance abuse exposure more likely to show inadequate antibody titre Emotion focused coping to stress= more adequate labels of antibody titre than one yr earlier Immunocompetence- effective working Immunocompromise- not working effectively Wound healing good indicator of stress/ psych disorders immune functions Faster when immune system is more vigorous Psych distress impairs inflammatory response that initiates wound repair Stress and immune functioning o Commonplace stressors affect Stress and immunity in humans o Likely evolved so that in response to sudden stress changes in the immune system could take place quickly; repair and prevention o Short: Few minute stressors: fight or flight-anticipate injury Short term stressor leads to more natural killer and granular lymphs Stress up immune up Specifics decrease to short terms 3 Short term stressors mobilize immune functioning changes in cytotoxin production; shift from cellular immunity; fight off invaders o Chronic stress events Adverse effects on almost all functions of immune system Stronger among ppl with previous vulnerabilities like ld age/disease Chronic inflammation increases rates of heart disease and decline cognitive performance o Short/long term differences consistent with evolutionary arguments o Short-fight off; acute-ward of pathogens too; chronic more vulnerable o Stress related changes in HPA have adverse effects on immunosuppressive Releases cortisol and glucocorticoids and this reduces white cells, affects functions of lymphocytes and reduces releases of cytoxins May be downward modulation of immune system by cerebral cortex via neurpeptide release such as beta endorphins o Self related health also predicts levels of cytokines May be source of self perception of health state Stress studies o Space flight More white cells, natural killer decrease Cateclomines/whites increased in landing Stronger for ppl who went a week; weaker for longer traveller Produces sympathetic nervous sys; but gets worse as duration of flight prolongs Landing stress muted by relief of being home o Space test 2 Decreased t cells immunity and reactivity of the Epstein Barr virus Consistent that immune sys. Showing effects of stress o Trauma Changes due to sleep deprivations add Stress and lower antibody ties Social support added stronger antibody titres o Study in self blamed Increased shame, guilt, changes in inflammatory processes o Daily hassles If perceived as serious; likely to exhibit low NK cytokic activity o Anticipatory stress Th cells decrease; decrease in immune functioning Effects can be delayed 4 Health risks o Both children and adults hows lower immune sys. Vulnerabilities o More severe and higher production of cytokines Autoimmune disorders o Falsely identifies own tissues as invaders o Include many diseases o grays most common excessive production of thyroid hormone; o Chronic active hep- chronic inflamed liver o Lupus-connective tissue; multiple organs o Multiple sclerosis- myelin sheath around nerves; neurological problems o Rheumatoid arthritis-immune attacks and inflames joints linings o IBD/chrons- intestines o diabetes o Nearly 80\% of ppl have these other autoimmune disorders are women 1.Perhaps because estrogens levels modulation Develop a lot in 20s when levels are higher 2.Testosterone may help against disorders 3. Fetus cells remaining causes; immune system attacks due to confusion o Likelihood to get one and then another is very high o Genetic factors implicated o I.e. arthritis family may also have a kid who has chrons Negative effect and immune functioning o Stress leading to anxiety/depression o Depression big culprit for stress-immune relation Lowered proliferated response of lymphocytes to mitogens, lowered NK, white blood cells Stronger effects in elderly, and vulnerbales Sleep disturbance adds of course and offshoot Stress immune and interpersonal relationships o Bereavement show less response to mitogenic o Some show large immune response to ppl who became depressed due to bereavement o Loneliness affects functioning Poor health/immunocompetence/ Insecure less NK and risk for health Marital disruption o Poorer functioning on some immune parameters than did their matched married counterparts o Recent breaks caused obsession caused much poor immune systems
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