PSYC 3170 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Epstein–Barr Virus, Cell-Mediated Immunity, Rheumatoid Arthritis

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24 Apr 2012
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Health Psychology Chapter 14
Psychoneuroimmunoligy aids cancer and arthritis
Immune system was one of poorly understood systems
Psychoneuroimmunoligy: the interactions b.w. behavioural neuroendrocine and
immunological processes of adaptation
Immune system:
o Surveillance system of body
o Distinguishes b.w. self and invaders
Profile of the immune system
o Natural/specific
o 1. Natural
Defence against pathogens (cells not specific but overall)
Largest in natural is granuclytses
Include netrohils and macrophages; both phagocystic
engulf target pathogens
Neutrops/macs-congregate at site of injury and release
toxins
Macs-release cytokines-lead to inflammation and fever
Natural killers also fight(signal for potential malignancies)
o 2. Specific
Slower/specific
Lymphocytes involved-receptor sites-fit with antigens respond to
specific invaders
Proliferative response: Antigens specific cells divide
o Both work together
Humeral and cell mediated immunity
o Humeral:
B lymphocytes mediate
Protect from bacteria
o Cell mediated:
T lymphocytes from thymus gland
Tc(cytotoxic) Respond to specifics and kill by producing toxic
Helper T c ells enhance Tc(cytotoxic) functions/B cells by
producing lympokines which serve a counter regulatory immune
function that suppresses immune activity
Assessing immunocompetence:
o General functioning
o 1. Measure number of diff. Cells in immune system by looking at blood
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Counting T/B/NK and assessing amounts of circulating
lymphokines/antibody levels
o
o 2. Assessing functioning of immune cells
Examining activation/proliferation/transformation/cytotoxity of
cells
Lymphocyte-assessing ability to kill invaders
Mitogen- assessing ability to reproduce when stimulated by
chemical
Phagocytotic- ability of white cells to ingest
More proliferation better the cells are
o 3. Latent(inactive) virus functioning
If body produces antibodies to inactive; not working well
o 4. Antibodies to vaccine
Antibody levels to vaccine injection levels
I.e.: lower antibody levels to hep B vaccine show poorer initial T
cell proliferation response
Higher stress/substance abuse exposure more likely to show
inadequate antibody titre
Emotion focused coping to stress= more adequate labels of
antibody titre than one yr earlier
Immunocompetence- effective working
Immunocompromise- not working effectively
Wound healing good indicator of stress/ psych disorders immune
functions
Faster when immune system is more vigorous
Psych distress impairs inflammatory response that initiates
wound repair
Stress and immune functioning
o Commonplace stressors affect
Stress and immunity in humans
o Likely evolved so that in response to sudden stress changes in the immune
system could take place quickly; repair and prevention
o Short:
Few minute stressors: fight or flight-anticipate injury
Short term stressor leads to more natural killer and granular
lymphs
Stress up immune up
Specifics decrease to short terms
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Short term stressors mobilize immune functioning changes in
cytotoxin production; shift from cellular immunity; fight off
invaders
o Chronic stress events
Adverse effects on almost all functions of immune system
Stronger among ppl with previous vulnerabilities like ld
age/disease
Chronic inflammation increases rates of heart disease and decline
cognitive performance
o Short/long term differences consistent with evolutionary arguments
o Short-fight off; acute-ward of pathogens too; chronic more vulnerable
o Stress related changes in HPA have adverse effects on immunosuppressive
Releases cortisol and glucocorticoids and this reduces white cells,
affects functions of lymphocytes and reduces releases of cytoxins
May be downward modulation of immune system by cerebral
cortex via neurpeptide release such as beta endorphins
o Self related health also predicts levels of cytokines
May be source of self perception of health state
Stress studies
o Space flight
More white cells, natural killer decrease
Cateclomines/whites increased in landing
Stronger for ppl who went a week; weaker for longer traveller
Produces sympathetic nervous sys; but gets worse as duration of
flight prolongs
Landing stress muted by relief of being home
o Space test 2
Decreased t cells immunity and reactivity of the Epstein Barr virus
Consistent that immune sys. Showing effects of stress
o Trauma
Changes due to sleep deprivations add
Stress and lower antibody ties
Social support added stronger antibody titres
o Study in self blamed
Increased shame, guilt, changes in inflammatory processes
o Daily hassles
If perceived as serious; likely to exhibit low NK cytokic activity
o Anticipatory stress
Th cells decrease; decrease in immune functioning
Effects can be delayed
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