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Canada (158,372)
York University (12,359)
Psychology (3,543)
PSYC 3260 (50)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - attention

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York University
PSYC 3260
Norman Park

Chapter 4 AttentionIn the context of human information processing attention is the process that at a given moment enhances some information and inhibits other information The enhancement enables us to select some information for further processing and the inhibition enables us to set some information asideMultiple Meanings of AttentionFour interrelated ideasFirst we are constantly confronted with much more information than we can pay attention toSecond there are serious limitations in how much we can attend to any at one timeThird we can respond to some information and perform some tasks with little if any attentionFourth with sufficient practice and knowledge some tasks become less and less demanding of our attentional processesAttentionProcess of concentrating on specific features of the environment or on certain thoughts or activitiesSelective excluding of other features of the environmentLimited in capacity and timingBoth overt and covert we can consciously attend to information but some information grabs our attentionAttentionOvert attentionshifting attention from one place to another by moving the eyesThe movement of the eyes provide observable signals of how attention is changing overtimeCovert attentionshifting attention without moving the eyes commonly refer to as from the corner of my eyes Selective AttentionAbility to focus on one message and ignore all othersWe do not attend to a large fraction of the information in the environmentFiltering out some information and promoting other information for further processingResearch Method Dichotic ListeningOne message is presented to the left ear and another to the right earParticipant shadows one message to ensure he is attending to that messageCan we completely filter out the message to the unattended ear and attend only to the shadowed messageCaption In the shadowing procedure a person repeats out loud words he has just heardResults of Dichotic ListeningParticipants could not report the content of the message in unattended earKnew that there was a messageKnew the gender of the speakerHowever unattended ear is being processed at some levelCocktail party effectChange in gender is noticedChange to a tone is noticedModels of Selective AttentionWhere does the attention filter occurEarly in processingLater in processingattention modelsEarly selection model Broadbents Filter ModelCaption filter model of attentionFilters message before incoming information is analyzed for meaningSensory memory Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a secondTransfers all information to next stageFilter
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