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Chapter 14

PSYC 3265 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Suggestibility, Explicit Memory, Autobiographical Memory

Course Code
PSYC 3265
Shayna Rosenbaum

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The earliest memories of children between age 59 were from about 1 ½ years on average and for
young adults it was 2 ½ years and for adults 3 years. The reason being is because the boundaries of
○ Theoreticalconsideration
Traditional model assumes that infants during first year are only capable of implicit
memory for perceptual and motor skills and not explicit memory because of the
Ecological model believes the basic memory processes do not change with increasing age,
During the first several months of life they cannot move, as a result they are good at
associating whatever they see together as nonselective fashion and up to the age of 8
When infants achieve independent locomotion (movement) they encounter more objects
The ecological model predicts that very young infants rapidly associate stimuli that appear
the traditional model believes that all forms of learning and memory improve with age and
in contrast the ecological model believes that infants surpass older infants when learning
○ Findings:Mobileandtraintasks
RoveeCollier: suspending a mobile over the crib and attaching it to the baby's foot. When
the baby kicks the mobile moves. This is called the mobile conjugate reinforcement      
task: has three phases; first there is a baseline phase the ribbon is attached to the crib and    
the foot not the mobile, the second is the learning phase during which the ribbon is
attached to the mobile and foot the infant learns and kicks (response) causing the mobile
to move (reward reinforcement), and the third phase is the test phase, it's attached to the
crib not the mobile and measures the times the baby kicks and compares it with the
The effect of presenting a reminder was also considered. The Experimenter moving the
mobile the reminder reactivated the amount of kicking after 1 month delay show that
The train task for older infants infants learn to press a lever to make a train move. This
There is a time period after the original memory if formed (time window)
during which  

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○ Findings:Deferredimitation
LTM can be shown if infants can reproduce some/all actions after a delay which is known
It has shown that 6 months old can show deferred imitation only when the testing
○ Findings:sensorypreconditioning
Sensory preconditioning is an association between two stimuli that is established prior to    
68 months: phase 1 the infant formed an association with pink rabbit and a yellow duck.
In experiment 1 they were exposed to two of the animals for 60 minutes and in experiment
2 they were exposed to 2 30 min sessions. In phase 2 the infant saw three target actions on
Findings support the ecological model. They show that young infants have good LTM for
associations between objects that are seen together. They remember associations longer
○ Developmentofdeclarativememory
■ Whydoesdeclarativememorybecomebetterasinfantsage:
● ThecapacityofSTMandworkingmemoryincreasesoveryears
● Childrendevelopmemorystrategiesastheydevelop
Older children posses more knowledge which makes it easier for them to remember
● Metamemory
which is the knowledge we possess about our own memory and how it  
● Basiccapacity
There is agerelated changes in the capacity of various components of working
memory. Many factors are involved. Structural changes in the brain involving a
There is a correlation between enhanced working memory functioning and maturation
● Contentknowledge
Experiment done on 10 year old chess players and adults who know little about chess.
It was found that memory for chess positions depends largely on expertise and very
● Memorystrategies
○ Olderchildrenmorelikelythanyoungertousememorystrategies
Categorized recall: participants are presented with list of words belonging to
categories such as fourfooted animals, articles of clothing, etc. and it is followed by
free recall. Adults use organizational strategies in which they organize the words into
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