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Chapter 14

PSYC 3265 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Suggestibility, Explicit Memory, Autobiographical Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3265
Professor
Shayna Rosenbaum
Chapter
14

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CHAPTER14:Memoryinchildhood
The earliest memories of children between age 59 were from about 1 ½ years on average and for
young adults it was 2 ½ years and for adults 3 years. The reason being is because the boundaries of
childhoodamnesiaisflexible,andsecondlyithasbecomeforgottenoveryears
● MEMORYININFANTS
○ Theoreticalconsideration
Traditional model assumes that infants during first year are only capable of implicit
memory for perceptual and motor skills and not explicit memory because of the
maturationofthehippocampus
Ecological model believes the basic memory processes do not change with increasing age,
insteadwhatinfantslearndiffersfromwhatislearnedbyolderchildren.
During the first several months of life they cannot move, as a result they are good at
associating whatever they see together as nonselective fashion and up to the age of 8
monthstheyexperienceaperiodofrapidlearning.
When infants achieve independent locomotion (movement) they encounter more objects
andleadsthemtobecomeincreasinglyselectiveintheassociationstheyform
The ecological model predicts that very young infants rapidly associate stimuli that appear
togetherintheirsurrounding
the traditional model believes that all forms of learning and memory improve with age and
in contrast the ecological model believes that infants surpass older infants when learning
andrememberinginformation
○ Findings:Mobileandtraintasks
RoveeCollier: suspending a mobile over the crib and attaching it to the baby's foot. When
the baby kicks the mobile moves. This is called the mobile conjugate reinforcement      
task: has three phases; first there is a baseline phase the ribbon is attached to the crib and    
the foot not the mobile, the second is the learning phase during which the ribbon is
attached to the mobile and foot the infant learns and kicks (response) causing the mobile
to move (reward reinforcement), and the third phase is the test phase, it's attached to the
crib not the mobile and measures the times the baby kicks and compares it with the
baseline.
The effect of presenting a reminder was also considered. The Experimenter moving the
mobile the reminder reactivated the amount of kicking after 1 month delay show that
infantshaveLTM
The train task for older infants infants learn to press a lever to make a train move. This
showsthatinfantscanrememberafteradelayof18months.
There is a time period after the original memory if formed (time window)
during which  
remindersenhancetheinfantLTM

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○ Findings:Deferredimitation
LTM can be shown if infants can reproduce some/all actions after a delay which is known
asdeferredimitation
It has shown that 6 months old can show deferred imitation only when the testing
environmentwasidenticaltotheoneinwhichlearningoccurred
○ Findings:sensorypreconditioning
Sensory preconditioning is an association between two stimuli that is established prior to    
thestartofconditioning.
68 months: phase 1 the infant formed an association with pink rabbit and a yellow duck.
In experiment 1 they were exposed to two of the animals for 60 minutes and in experiment
2 they were exposed to 2 30 min sessions. In phase 2 the infant saw three target actions on
therabbit.
Findings support the ecological model. They show that young infants have good LTM for
associations between objects that are seen together. They remember associations longer
thanolderinfants.
● DEVELOPMENTALCHANGESINMEMORYDURINGCHILDHOOD
○ Developmentofdeclarativememory
■ Whydoesdeclarativememorybecomebetterasinfantsage:
● ThecapacityofSTMandworkingmemoryincreasesoveryears
● Childrendevelopmemorystrategiesastheydevelop
Older children posses more knowledge which makes it easier for them to remember
newinformation
● Metamemory
which is the knowledge we possess about our own memory and how it  
works.Itdevelopsduringthecourseofchildhood
● Basiccapacity
There is agerelated changes in the capacity of various components of working
memory. Many factors are involved. Structural changes in the brain involving a
frontospatialnetworkisimportant.
There is a correlation between enhanced working memory functioning and maturation
ofbrainstructures.
● Contentknowledge
Experiment done on 10 year old chess players and adults who know little about chess.
It was found that memory for chess positions depends largely on expertise and very
littleonage
● Memorystrategies
○ Olderchildrenmorelikelythanyoungertousememorystrategies
Categorized recall: participants are presented with list of words belonging to
categories such as fourfooted animals, articles of clothing, etc. and it is followed by
free recall. Adults use organizational strategies in which they organize the words into
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