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Chapter 1

PSYC 3350 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Bisexuality, Heterosexuality, Indep

Course Code
PSYC 3350
Francois Lalonde

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1 reason: Have a messed up understanding of the mind if we nah consider
Okay apparently thats a good reason..wtf
So the 1st reason: gaining knowledge in this field is imp for developing
understanding of related topics
*Talks about in. Globalization and living in a very mulitcultural community
The whole "ppl are de same everywhere you go" is like adopting the color blind
approach where instead of focusing on ppls ethnic background, were looking at
ppls nature instead; racial equality
Theres also the whole "us vs. Them" mindset that ppl can have to; so tension b/w
2 g. Can develop based on really trivial distinctions
In contrast to color blind approach, you have the multicultural approach where
c.al diff are celebrated
-So ppl identify strongly w/ their g. (embrace strong c.al identity)
Studies show that g. That emphasize multicultural msgs tend to be more
successful vs. The former
-Minority workers more engaged w/ their work when their fellow white colleagues
pay little attn to their ethnicity + have more trust in company
So another reason: An increased understanding and appreciation of cultural
differences can lead people of different cultural backgrounds to get along better,
be more engaged in their work, and be able to detect discrimination when it
-Our c. Seems invisible to us; our att. And B are normal b/c we can't see
ourselves acting otherwise
-But to other people, our practices might seem crazy
-Author wants us to appreciate our own c.
-Our values are shaped by our c.al exp (i.e. We're socialized to think of certain
things as right/wrong)
-Can lead to error of ethnocentrism - when we judge others by the standards of
our own c.; so what goes against our c.al values/norms (i.e. Deviations from what
we consider as a normal path), we might confront and judge as "wrong/immoral"

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-The russian cultural historical school: argued that people interact with their
environments through the "tools" or human-made ideas that have been passed to
them across history, such as cultural inventions like the wheel, agriculture, or
Sooo human thought is sustained and expressed thru human made ideas as its
practiced in day-day activities
Psych processes can vary across c.
-Humor is one char. That varies across c (vac)
-So yes, people ac have very diff preferences (even within c.)
But c.al variation can go much deeper than preffies
Many basic psych processes, like how we see the world, whats right and wrong,
what m.ates us, can emerge in starkly diff ways ac
So then how can we understand the human mind when it works differently in
various contexts?
-Diff implications/perspectives embraced by rchers
Richard Shewder
He argues that much of the field of psychology (what he calls "general
psychology") inherently assumes that the mind operates under a set of natural
and universal laws that are independent from content or context
Basically, he argues that ppl are the same wherever you go; i.e. Universal
But this is obvz not true
He believes that PGs are more interested in human universality vs. Variability
This is b/c they see our brain as a CPU unit that operates indep of the content its
thinking about or of the context within which its thinking
So he sees the main goal of psych to understand how the CPU works in the raw
so we can see the universal laws that govern thought

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-Context and content are seen as unwanted noise that cloud our ability to
perceive the fxning of the CPU; so exp are conducted in very controlled settings
to provide the purest view of the CPU
-The mind as a comp is a metaphor
Accrding to this perspective, imp c.al variations in ways of thinking can't exist b/c
cultures provide var. In content and context that lies outside the CPU
*Dis is a universalist perspective
-So this means that they have to reflect contamination of various sources of
noise, like translation errors
They can't reflect diff in CPU b/c its universally the same across all contexts
So then general psych would argue that pretty much all of human psych is
universally exp in similar ways
In contrast - the assumption embraced by CPGs is that in many ways the mind
doesn't operate indep of what its thinking about. So thinking involves interaxn w/
what the brain is thinking about AND par. In the context within which one is doing
the thinking
CPGs then argue that to understand the mind, its imp to consider what one is
thinking about - whether it be food, weapons, sexual partners, or rituals
-Have to consider whether ones B will increase ones status within a comm,
violate a law, be affectionate towards a child, or is consistent w/ religious doctrine
How people think is shaped by their cultural knowledge
Our B are embedded in cultural info, and this info renders our thoughts, feelings,
and B as meaningful - i.e. Our actions, thoughts, and feelings relate to other tingz
beyond dem
Ex. Of the Amcn person going our for coffee
-This one action can be interpreted in diff ways
Can mean that they want to diet, or are in pursuit of a romantic partner
But one meaning appropriate in a certain cultural context may not be appropriate
in others
I.e. Not always appropriate for person to find a partner on their own; has to be
arranged by fam
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