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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Evolutionary Psychology.doc

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 8 evolutionary psychology Problems of kinship o Due to inclusive fitness, ppl differ in genetic relatedness; 12.5 to cousins, 25% to gp; 50% to parents Theory and implication of inclusive fitness: o Hamiltons rule: Property of actions or effects, calculated by own reproductive success plus effect on his relatives Altruism-1. Incurring a cost onto the self-2. Benefit for another person We would expect altruism not to evolve; could if costs outweigh the benefit to the recipient of the altruism; multiplied by the probability that the recipient carried a copy of the altruism gene Natural selection favors it when c>rb(cost, r-relatedness, b-recipient) Selection will favor a .5 kin if 2x the cost to the actor; or if benefits to a .125 member are more than 8x cost of the actor I.e. Well save 3 bros but not just 1 Save 5 nieces/ 9 cousins Defines conditions where the adaptations can evolve; selection pressures- evolvability constraint-only genes that meet conditions of Hamiltons rule can evolve Single most important revision of Darwins o Theoretical implications of Hamiltons rule: Psych adaptations are expected to have evolved for diff types of kin Doesnt require to be kin mechanism Theory yields predictions abt kin mechanisms if they evolve Inclusive fitness renders parenting special case of kinship as well as other cases Sib ships: Unique adaptive problems and do so throughout history, social 1 allies, 50% relation, competitors for parental resources Adaptive problems imposed by parents on children create niches for the children depending on their birth order First born more conservative and status quo Second have little to gain by supporting the existing structure and e.t. Gain by rebelling Later borns ; especially middle borns Youngest might have more repro investment put in them Middle over young score lower on family solidarity ; Less likely to have a genetic relative whom they feel close to Less positive abt family and members in family need Less likely to cheat; dont know why First borns likely to feel solidarity Middle less total investment form rents if treated equally Sibs versus half sibs: Full sib or half 50 vs. 25% genes share Full sisters more likely to cooperate in mutual defense of young Recurrent selection pressure over tune of evo history; children through more than 1 man Grandparents and grandchildren: R of .25 relation; menopause evolved to cease direct repro to invest in children/grandchildrengrandmother hypothesis They do show care, cross cultures, adaptations evolved as will be seen Hypotheses about universal aspects of kinship: Ego centered kin terminology will be universal- all terms flow from an ego centered focal individual All kinship systems will make critical distinctions along lines of sex o Reproductive implications separate bro n sis 2o Should therefore be discriminations Generation-r.s. Is sometimes asymmetrical b.w. Parent and child o With age they become more valuable Kin relationship universally arrayed by closeness-linked to genetic relatedness- emotional closeness Cooperation and solidarity b.w. Kin function of gene relation Elder members of extended kin family encourage younglings to be more altruistic to kin Ones position within an extended kin network will be core components of self concept Ppl everywhere are aware of who they are relatively culturally Kinship terms will be used to persuade and influence other ppl even when no kinship is involved- psych target by framing
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