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Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

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York University
PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Chapter 5: BACKGROUND ON GENDER COMPARISONS: Cautions about research on gender comparisons:  There can be lots of biases when doing research on gender comparisons.  Also have to be cautious when interpreting the results 1. Biased samples can influence results- studies on cognitive individuals is only conducted on white men and women. If they were also don’t on coloured people there may be different conclusions. 2. Peoples expectations can influence results- if you expect to find gender differences then you will find them. 3. If we measure some ability and then we create on graph for the sores of males and we add another graph for the scores off males the 2 distributions of scores will overlap substantially. a. Frequency distribution= tells us how many people in a sample receive each score. b. Distributions of male an female characteristics usually show a small separation and a large overlap. 4. Researchers seldom find gender differences in all situations- cant make general statements about gender differences. But we can make them disappear by testing certain kinds of people or just looking at particular situations. 5. The cognitive gender differences aren’t large enough to be relevant for a persons career choice- The meta analysis approach to summarizing multiple studies:  When you want to obtain an overview of a certain topic, pychologists will review all the research that pertains to the studies of that topic  They do this by the box score approach= researchers read through all the appropriate studies on a given topic and draw conclusions based on a tally of their outcomes. o Makes ambiguous tallies. o It doesn’t provide a syatematic method for combining individual studies.  Meta analysis= gives a statistical method for combining numerous studies on a single topic. o they locate all appropriate studies on the topic. o Make a statistical analysis that combines the results of all the studies. o This then calculates the size of the overall difference between 2 groups.  We get the effect size from this. COGNITIVE ABILITIES  Now we will look at where there are gender differences in cognitive abilities for o Memory, verbal ability, mathematics ability and spatial ability. Cognitive abilities that show no consistent gender differences: General intelligence:  Males and female are similar in general intelligence. The IQ tests are made to eliminate gender differences. Even still, IQ scores for men show greater variability than womens IQ scores. Complex cognitive tasks:  Men and women are equal when they form concepts and when they solve a variety of complex problems.  Also similar for creative tasks.  No gender differences for learning style. Memory ability:  Study done that asked people to memorize a list of words and then after a bit of a delay they are told to say the words. Girls were more accurate.  Women are more accurate about remembering events from their lives. o Since when young the mom is more likely to discuss emotional topics with their daughters, therefore the girls have more opportunities to practice remembering these personal events.  Women are better at recognizing faces.  Women are better at remembering objects that they have seen earlier and also remembering where they have seen these objects. Verbal ability:  Females score somewhat higher than males on a small number of verbal tasks. General verbal ability:  Little research has been done on this.  Before age 2- girls have a larger vocab. But this disappears by age 3 and they are more equal.  Adolescents and adults have similarities between spelling, vocab, word association, reading comprehension and learning a second lang.  Females are better at verbal fluency= naming objects that meet certain criteria  Study done that the avg effect size was only .11. this is too close to 0 therefore, they conclude that overall gender differences don’t exist. Reading disabilities:  Males are more likely to have language problems.  Reading disability= poor reading skills that aren’t accounted for by the level of general intelligence. o Girls and boy met the same criteria for having this.  Reading disabilities in NZ: they included general intelligence in their analysis and they found out that boys were twice as likely girls to have reading disabilities.  Boys have ore trouble focusing their attention where as girls are more skilled at controlling their behavior.  Problem is that girls probably do have reading disabilities but because they sit quietly in their seats, they don’t get payed attention to. Mathematics ability:  Males have better math abilities.  But today they both complete the same amount of math courses. General mathematics ability:  National center for education statistics reported scores for 8 grade students on standardized math tests. o The report showed that boys avg was higher than girls in 16 countries o But in different 16 counties girls avg was higher than boys avg o 2 countries they had the same avg. Grades in mathematics courses:  Girls receive higher grades in 5, 6, 8, 10 math and also in college matho courses.  Girls perform better on familiar situations where as boys perform better in unfamiliar situations like the SAT The mathematics SAT:  Validity= measures what its supposed to measure.  The SAT has high overall validity because people with higher SAT scores do better overall in college math courses.  It predicts intellectual achievements in adulthood.  Its not valid for women that it will predict that women will earn lower grades in college math courses than men do.  The problem is that math SAT unde
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