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Chapter 11-12

PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11-12: Cervical Cancer, Pap Test, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Course Code
PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

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Chapter 11:
Gender makes a difference in the kind of health problems that people experience.
Female body typically has less fluid and more fat than the male body, important consequences for
alcohol metabolism.
Gender makes a difference in the way a disease is diagnosed, viewed, and treated.
Health care providers often consider the disease symptoms that occur in males to be normative, or
standard. Same disease may cause a different set of symptoms in females.
Illness is an important part of many women’s experience.
Chronic health problem: long lasting illness that cannot be completely cured. In US, this could account
for 70% death.
Bias against women:
Women have often been neglected in medicine and in medical research.
-Studies often not based on/with women subjects.
-Male as the normative.
Gender stereotypes are common in medicine
-Some physician considers women complaints to be not as serious as men’s.
-Believe women are more emotional and cannot understand information of their medical
Medical care provided to women is often inadequate or irresponsible.
-Received too much or too little health care.
Physician-patient communication patterns often make women feel relatively powerless.
-Women are more likely than men to report that their physicians didn’t listen to them and
talked down to them.
Gender comparisons in Life expectancy:
Women tend to live 5 years longer than men, virtually every country in the world, despite the
substantial health problems that women experience in developing countries.
Female second X chromosome may protect them from some health problems.
Gender differences in high-risk activities.
More men than women are exposed to dangerous conditions at work.
In both U.S, and Canada, women visit their health-care providers more often than men.

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More Sensitive to internal signs that might foreshadow health problems.
Gender comparisons in overall health:
Morbidity: Generalized poor health or illness.
Women have disadvantage in terms of morbidity than men. Such as, problems with obesity, anemia,
respiratory illness, chronic illnesses, headaches, and general fatigue.
Women live longer than men; nonfatal illnesses are associated with old age.
Morbidity is usually by self-report; women may be more likely than a man to report a illness.
How social class influences U.S women’s health
Social class can be measured in terms of a person’s occupation, income, or education.
Social class is correlated with life expectancy and morbidity.
Women and men differ in life insurance in U.S, where men usually received the best health care
benefits, and women received the secondary class, especially true for women of colour.
Low-income families often live in noisy, crowded environments; these factors are associated with poor
Health issues for women in Developing countries:
-Faces two issues, access to health care and female genital mutilation.
When resources are scarce, female tends to be ignored when a medical issue arise.
Seeking medical help for males are more likely than females.
Female in developing countries typically have inadequate health care and too little to eat.
Female Genital Mutilation (Female genital cutting): Involves cutting or removing a section of the
female genitals, usually part or all of the clitoris.
Typically a cultural practice, yet creates health problems for girls and women.
Extremely painful procedure, can cause severe blood loss, and infection leading to death.
Usually perform on girl between 4 to puberty, held down by female relatives, then an older women
perform with an unsterilized sharp objects such as a piece of glass.
Cultural believe that this makes the genital cleaner, reduce sexual activity outside marriage (which is
true, in a sense that sexual pleasure is decreased).

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Cardiovascular disease….Etc. :
Most deadly than all forms of cancer combined.
Each years, 500,000 death in U.S, and responsible for 23% of all female death.
Myth: This is a men’s disease.
Men more likely to experience heart disease earlier, but women have the same risk by age 75.
Black women more likely to die of heart disease.
Men’s self-report symptoms tend to be chest pain, while women’s symptoms are chest pain and
breathlessness, which may confuse the physicians if they are searching for classic “male” symptom only.
Researcher more likely to studies cardiovascular in men.
Men and women behave differently after heart attack, men reduce chores, while women takes up on it
more quickly.
Precautions for prevention: Diet low in salt, cholesterol, and saturated fats. Exercise while maintain
Breast cancer:
Women associated with breast cancer when 10% of men can get it too.
Overemphasize on breast cancer with women, when other illness are more dangerous for women.
May be due to the fact that breast Is culturally consider essential part of being a women.
Removal of breast will invite views of less of a women.
Black women are less likely than white women to develop breast cancer, more likely to die from it
Women who are menstruating should examine their breast about a week after their menstrual period is
over because their breast are likely to have normal lumps during menstruation.
Mammogram: X-ray of the breast, taken when breast tissue is flattened between two plastic plates.
When breast in early stage, lumpectomy is a common treatment. Where it removes the cancerous
Earlier detection and more sophisticated procedures, women are much less likely to die from breast
cancer now than in earlier decades.
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer will cause some fear, anxirty, grief, depression, and anger.
Treatment cycle is physically painful, socially lonely experience, often feel exhausted for several months
during and after treatment.
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