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Chapter

PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes -Reading Disability, Lateralization Of Brain Function, 3 Women


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3480
Professor
Noreen Stuckless

Page:
of 3
Chapter 5 Study Notes
Cautions about the way psychologists conduct their research
We need to be cautious about interpreting results
1. Biased samples can influence results most research is on college students, we
know nothing about non college attendees, mostly white people
2. Researchers expectations bias results usually what the research wants
influences the study
3. Seldom find gender differences in research frequency distributions tell
us how many people in a sample receive each score, typically a frequency
distribution for males and females have a LARGE OVERLAP and SMALL
SEPERATION … males and females are reasonably similar
4. Researches seldom find gender differences in each situation we cannot make
general statements about gender overall. Males and females have remarkably
similar
5. Gender differences found in research should not discourage the opposite gender
from pursing a career in a certain field
Meta-analysis approach to summarizing Studies
Originally used the box-score approach combine results of various studies and
tally results to form overall yes or no
However, box-score turns up ambiguous results
Meta-analysis provides a statistical method for combining numerous studies on
a single topic
First locate all appropriate studies on the topic
Separate females from males, then calculate the general average from the two
Cohn’s D is the number produced by meta-analysis results effect size
COGNITIVE ABILITIES
Females and males are most similar is general intelligence measured by IQ test
IQ tests eliminate gender differences
IQ scores for males greater variability than IQ scores for females
Media often claims that women are better then men at multi-tasking, however,
untrue!
Complex cognitive tasks
Equally competent when problem solving and creativity tasks performed
No gender differences in learning styles
Memory Ability
Women score higher on memory tasks then males
Women are better at recall memory
Women are more accurate at remembering life events
Girls more emotional therefore better at recalling life events RE: CHAPTER 3
Women are better at recognizing faces
More accurate at recalling detail regarding clothing or hair on another person
General verbal ability
Little research on gender comparisons on verbal ability
Gender differences girls better vocabulary then boys @ 3years old then goes away
Similar spelling vocabulary abilities
Females better at verbal fluency
SAT reading comprehension minimal gender differences
Reading disabilities
Males more likely then females to have language problems
Teachers may target males who are less attentive and more active as having
reading disabilities, however, they are just excited
Males 1.2 times more likely then girls to have reading disabilities
Mathematics Ability
Most attention / research in this area
Females and males similar in math ability
HOWEVER females actually get better grades in math then boys
TAKE HOME MESSAGE BOYS AND GIRLS SIMILAR IN MATH
ABILITY
Grades in mathematics courses
Females earn higher grades in 5 6 8 and 10 as well as college math courses
Females perform better in similar situations with previously learned material
Males perform better in uncertain situations with new material
Mathematics SAT
SAT math section underestimates women’s actual performance
Spatial Ability
Understanding perceiving and manipulating shapes and figures
Spatial visualization
Complex processing of spatial information
Locating a pattern
Females and males perform similarly
Males better then females at reading map and finding way back to start point on a
destination
Spatial Perception
Males score higher in this domain
Asked to identify horizontal or vertical location without being distracted by other
irrelevant information
After training, gender differences are diminished
Mental Rotation
Ability to rotate a 2d figure accurately and rapidly
Produces largest gender gap of all skills
Males are faster then females at rotating figure
Gender differences disappear with instruction as well as application to gender
relevant preferences i.e. girls like to design therefore interior designing
Men and women can improve this ability by practicing
Biological Explanations
1. Genetic explanation says that spatial ability may be a recessive trait carried
on the X chromosome
2. Hormones important before and during puberty
3. Brain Organization brain lateralization: two halves of the brain function
differently
Left hemisphere is better with language
Right hemisphere is better with spatial tasks
Females use both hemispheres
No one has yet to show that brain differences actually cause gender differences on
cognitive tasks
Achievement Motivation
Males and females similar in their intrinsic motivation tendency to work on a
task for your own satisfaction versus working on a task for a reward
Self confidence
Level of Self Confidence
Men are more self confident in their ability than women
The following influence self confidence
1. Type of Setting women are more likely to be modest with other people
2. Type of Task males better at masculine tasks and more confident visa versa
for females
3. Personal Characteristics of the Individual boys over estimated their score
and girls under estimated their scores …self efficacy persons belief that he or
she has the ability to achieve a goal
White males and females have higher self efficacy then females
Self Confidence and Others Input
Women more affected by other peoples opinion then men
Personal Definitions of Success
Women more likely then men to maintain a balance between relationships and
work which is what they define as being successful
Men define success through materialistic items i.e. money
Attributions for your Own Success
Causes for your own behaviour
Males are more likely then females to give credit to their own ability
Women and men are generally similar in the reason they provide for their success
or failure
Factors that influence whether women and men have different patterns of
attribution for their own success on a task:
1. Type of setting in the presence of others, men are more likely then women
to credit their own ability. Men and women responses are similar in private
2. Type of Task women more likely to uses ability explanation when success
regarding a feminine tasks and visa versa for men
3. Age of Individual 13-25 females and males have similar attribution
patterns’, older than 25 men are cockier then women