PSYC 3490 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Extraversion And Introversion, Aboriginal Peoples In Canada, Pastoral Care

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3490
Chapter Ten: Personality
Levels of Analysis and Personality Research
Dispositional Traits: aspects of personality that are consistent across different contexts
and can be compared across a group along a continuum
Personal Concerns: consist of things that are important to people, their goals and their
major concerns in life usually described in motivational, developmental or strategic
terms, they reflect the stage of life a person is in at the time
Life Narrative: consists of the aspects of personality that pull everything together, the
integrative aspects that give a person an identity or sense of self
The Case for Stability: The Five-Factor Model
5 independent dimensions of personality
1. Neuroticism anxiety, hostility, self-consciousness, depression, impulsiveness and
vulnerability
2. Extraversion warmth. gregariousness and assertiveness (interpersonal traits);
activity, excitement seeking and positive emotions (temperamental traits)
3. Openness to experience fantasy, aesthetics, action, ideas, values and occupational
choice
4. Agreeableness people are not skeptical, mistrustful, callous, unsympathetic,
stubborn, rude
5. Conscientiousness hard working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous, preserving,
desirous to make something of self
Evidence for trait stability
- Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey (GZTS) (n=114), Costa
andMcCrae found:
- Over a 12-year period, 10personality traits measured byGZTS remained stable
- Other studies similar to the GZTSfound equivalentresultshowever, in the very
old,suspiciousness and sensitivityincreased
Critiques of the Five-Factor Model
- Block (1995) takes issue with the methodologythat uses laypeople to specify
personalitydescriptors that were used to create the terms ofthe Five-Factor Model
- McAdams (1996, 1999) points out that anymodel of dispositional traits says nothing
aboutthe core or essential aspects of human nature
- A major criticism is directed to the notion ofstability and change in personality
The Berkeley Studies
Participants were followed for 30 years between ages 40 to 70 - Gender differences were
identified
For women
- Lifestyle in young adulthood was best predictor of life satisfaction inold age
For men
- Personality was the better predictorof life satisfaction in old age
Women’s Personality Development During Adulthood two categories of women were studied
1. Those who followed the social clock
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Document Summary

Dispositional traits: aspects of personality that are consistent across different contexts and can be compared across a group along a continuum. Life narrative: consists of the aspects of personality that pull everything together, the integrative aspects that give a person an identity or sense of self. The case for stability: the five-factor model. Using the guilford-zimmerman temperament survey (gzts) (n=114), costa andmccrae found: Over a 12-year period, 10personality traits measured bygzts remained stable. Other studies similar to the gztsfound equivalentresults however, in the very old,suspiciousness and sensitivityincreased. Block (1995) takes issue with the methodologythat uses laypeople to specify personalitydescriptors that were used to create the terms ofthe five-factor model. Mcadams (1996, 1999) points out that anymodel of dispositional traits says nothing aboutthe core or essential aspects of human nature. A major criticism is directed to the notion ofstability and change in personality. Participants were followed for 30 years between ages 40 to 70 - gender differences were identified.

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