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Chapter 4

PSYC 4060 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Animal Rights, Organism, Unconditional Positive Regard

Course Code
PSYC 4060
Tifrah Warner

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Chapter 4 – client-centered therapy
The theoretical perspective
1. How is human nature described? and what layer of human
existence is emphasized?
- Ego=self layer is focused on during therapy
-Client-centered therapy invites us to envision the human being as a person: self-
determining and self-realizing, a sovereign subject
-Personhood is an ethical claim that signifies that human beings should not be
used as means to others’ ends. All human beings are no reducible “ends” in
themselves, inherently deserving of dignity and respect
- His holistic theory of personality emphasized that individuals must be
understood as totalities striving to actualize themselves
-Rogers’ view of human nature has been characterized as optimistic and naïve
- This theory is basically phenomenological in character and relies heavily on the
concept of the self as an explanatory construct , it pictures the end-point of
personality development as being a basic congruence between the phenomenal
field of experience and the conceptual structure of the self .
2. How is the psychotherapeutic problem described?
- Persons and living organisms are thought to be evolving towards greater
complexity, fulfilling those potentials that preserve and enhance
- Theory of the actualizing tendency is biological in nature and is not moral
- If The goodness of fit between the person and the environment were
perfect, the person would develop toward roger’s view of the fully
functioning person
- Every organism possess the inherent organismic valuing process- and
only to the extent that the emerging self of the person can assimilate his or
her lived experiencing can congruence or wholeness be achieved.
- Congruence- the state of wholeness and integration within the experience
of the person, is the hallmark of psychological adjustment

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- As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are : a) symbolized,
perceived and organized into some relationship to self b) ignored because
there is no perceived relationship to the self-structure c) denied
symbolization or given a distorted symbolization because the experience
is inconsistent with the structure of the self
- Congruency explained- Psychological maladjustments exist when the
organism denies to awareness significant sensory and visceral
experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into
the gestalt of self-structure. When this situation exists, there is basis for
potential psychological stress
- Lack of congruency
- Focuses on self-concept, self-regard, locus of evaluation, experiencing
- Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies to awarnbess
significant sensory an visceral experiences, which consequently are not
symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self-structure. When tis situation
exists , there is a basis for potential psychological tension
The Intervention
1. What is the overall strategy, or main elements, used to address the
psychotherapeutic problem? And what is the primary goal of that
- Client’s perception of therapist’s condition are crucial
- Client is the one directing the therapy
- Client co-construct
-Main elements (114)
Experience- private world of the individual – at any given moment , some
experience is conscious
Reality – the private world of individual perceptions although for social
purposes reality consists of those perceptions that have a high degree of
consensus among local communities of individuals
Organism reacting as organized whole- clients become clearer in what is
more important to them, resulting in behavioral changes directed toward
the clarified goals.
Organisms actualizing tendency- in the absence of external force,
individuals prefer to be healthy rather than sick and in general to further
the optimal development in of the total organism.
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