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SOSC 1000 Course Kit Reading Summary 2.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Timothy Deluc

SOSC 1000 Course Kit Reading Summary 2 The Social Construction/Deconstruction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Class Introduction - “The very institutions that are supposed to enforce equality, which include our legal and parliamentary systems, often serve in practice to perpetuate inequality. This is a fundamental contradiction in our society.” Pg. 50 kit Liberal Feminism Historical Background - Deals with womens rights - 1876 the Indian act - Marlene LeGates o “Making Waves” (1996) o Movements of particular groups were difficult as it would need to be recognized by the general public - Mary Wollstonecraft o “A vindication of the Rights of Woman”  Women had the ability to reason  Women needed education o Human can reason set us apart from other creatures Maternal Feminism or Welfare State Liberalism? - Liberals definition of reason: o Moral aspects  Individual autonomy is stressed o Prudential Aspects  Value of self-fulfillment is stressed - Classical liberals o State exists to protect civil liberties  Ex. Property rights, voting rights, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association o Capitalism becomes the best economic system to realize their potential o Society is viewed as a meritocracy  Those who work hard will gain more, as will the society o Least government intervention the better - Herbert Spencer o Survival of the fittest - Welfare state liberalism o Government must provide for those in need o Emerged after the great depression o Anti feminist group  REAL • Realistic, Equal, Active, and for Life • Opposed abortion, • Made the government revise the womens program in the secretary of state  NAC • National Action Committee Critique of the Liberal Feminist Perspective - The value of “man” is not challenged - Liberal feminist represented only: White, protestant, anglo –saxon women o Seeks only to reform, not challenge o In the same work force, women were paid significantly less o Pushed for easier divorce to get out of abusive marriage - Finnie o Welfare state has a positive effect on the divorce rate Socialist Feminism Frederick Engels: “the World – Historical Defeat of the Female Sex” - Neo Marxist: o The end of capitalism o Proletarian workers  Get the world ready for classless and stateless society - Engels o Argued women were the first form of private property Explaining Poverty - Wolf (1982) o Believed Europeans were weak in trade o Later they dominated the trade industry and started the very hefty industrial revolution - Marxist focuses on class o Others explore racial inequalities both within states and globally - Engels o After marriage it would be house work in order to pass down the family inheritance Socialist Feminist Links with radical Feminism, Anti-Racism, and Postcolonial Theories - Differences between radical and socialist feminism o Radical focuses exclusively on women - Dependence in myriad ways are called postcolonial theories - Socialist theories o Stress historical ad structural factors The Agency/structure Debate - ISAs o Ideological state apparatuses - Hard Structural view o Individuals are created in and through the institutions and structures that guide their lives from even before the moment they are born” pg. 69 course kit o Creating your own identity - Soft structural view o Social feminist and critical theorist Poststructuralism and postmodernism Introduction: Precursors - Jacques Lacan o Destroy women? o Phallus? o The basis of language is what we should reason with - Claude Levi-strauss o Incest taboo  To create a new kin with someone outside of the family  To bring two groups together Deconstructing Sex, Sexuality, Race, and Gender - Poststructuralist and postmodernist destruct sex and sexuality as well - Poststructuralist o Releveant to social sciences  Precursors in structural theories o The challenge of lesbian (Judith Butler)  Going against the norm o Simone De Beauvoir  “The second Sex” • Women are the “other” to men o Discourse  Determining what race does what  Negative characteristics of “other”  Separate spheres of behavior o Deformity  Women were seen as imperfect males Foucault: Sex, Sexuality, Knowledge, and Power - Michel Foucault o Their sex became a way to control themselves o Power of the sexes o Power of children Critique of Poststructuralism/Postmodernism - Media o Occupied by sex, and sexuality - Women o Judged by appearance o Chapter 1: Introduction from of Woman Born - “woman’s status as child – bearer has been made into a major fact of her life” pg. 1 course kit - Two meanings of motherhood o Potential relationship o Institution - Power of motherhood o Biological potential or capacity to bear and nourish human life o Magical power invested in women by men - Susan Griffin o “Rape is a form of mass terrorism” pg. 1 course kit - Mass Childcare o Introduce women into the work force o Indoctrinate future citizens Chapter 2: Anger and Tenderness - “isolation of mothers and children together in the home must be taken for granted| pg. 6 course kit - “their father would return from work, when for an hour or two at least the circle drawn around mother and children would grow looser, the intensity between us slacken, because there was another adult in the house” pg 6. - “[T]o have a child was to assume adult womanhood to the full, to prove myself, to be “like other women.”” Pg 6-7 - “This is what women have always done” pg. 7 - Women are seen as: o “the devils gateway” before having children o After having children they’re sacred and beneficent Chapter 25: Why Can’t a Mother Be More Like a Businessman? The Trouble with Rachel - “certainly any self-respecting businessman would know better than to spend so much of his time comforting a sick child” pg. 13 - Contradictory cultural images of mothers Intensive Mothering - “control is important to Rachel since every action of mothering is understood to have potentially damaging consequences.” Pg. 15 - Child rearing: o The central caregiver  Men cannot be relied upon to prodive the same level of care o Spending amount of time, energy and material resources on the child o Comparison of private and professional life is ludicrous Cynical Questions - “socially constructed meaning of pregnancy and lactation that is important; it is the ideas and practices attached to childbirth and child rearing that constitute the culture of socially appropriate mothering.” Pg. 18 Global Overview - Entre amigos o Indicated a growing number os sexual minority people are not willing to keep quiet, even in the most hostile climates o Effectiveness of international networking Globalizing the issue - India o Media promoted pro and anti gay o In 2000, sixth hijra eunuch continued the tradition - June 2001 o Six independent united nations experts issued a joint statement reaching out to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender etc… to contact them about human rights violations o Internet help promote the human rights violations ‘Tradition’ kicks in - Media gives gays and lesbian in lima or Jakarta of the western gay culture - Tradition reinforce authoritarianism, patriarchy, nationalism, and xenophobia o Victims are women We are everywhere? - Sexual minorities are everywhere - “they do homosexuality, if you life, without being homosexuals” pg. 27 Rich world, poor world, queer world - The family is the strongest opponent to homosexuality - Family is “the very tissue of survival” pg. 29 Solidarity - Christianity played a major role in demonizing the sexual deviant Science: explaining sexual orientation - Same sex behavior was a strictly human phenomenon - “More recent studies have found evidence of homosexual behavior in 450 species of birds and mammals” pg. 31 Enter the Doctors - “To cure or eliminate what was seen as sexual perversion” pg. 32 Enter the Psychologists - 20 century most popular were theories of sexual orientation - Seduction theory o ‘naturally’ develop into heterosexuals unless seduced into homosexuality - Family dynamic o Connected to the same sex parent - Parental manipulation o Parents deteremine - “Nothing ‘made them gay’” o Counter argument by Edward stein  “People are not reliable at discovering the source of something so complex as their own sexual disposition simply through introspection” pg. 33 The Biologists turn - Lesbians had higher levels of testosterone and lower levels of estrogen and vice versa for men - These hypothesis led to cure lesbians and gay through surgical and hormonal treatments The gay Brain - Simon Le Vay o The hypothalamus plays the role in sex, diet, cardiovascular performance, control of body temperature, stress, emotional response, growth and other functions o INAH-3 were smaller in gay men  But the same size for hetero and lesbians o However was challenged due to the test subjects issue The Gay Gene - Dean Hamer o Homosexuality among maternal and paternal relatives is not statistically significant Who Cares? The Great Goddess Goddess brought human. The End of Men - “male babies being born has been declining every year in the united states since 1990” pg.40 - Invention that did the male production:: the step ladder How Men can avoid extinction 1. Remember that your car is not a weapon of mass destruction a. Need to relax 2. Lighten up on the food and drink a. Control what you eat 3. Step aside, you’ll live longer a. Lay back 4. Wash your Hands across America a. Be clean 5. Learn how a toilet seat works a. Be clean in the washroom 6. Bathe daily 7. Tone it down a. Actually listen to people and think of what they said 8. Get your Hearing Checked 9. Know that women are onto us a. Help end wage gap A Teasing Irony - “Free market capitalism is now largely unchallenged as the economic and social credo of just about every society on earth, but I believe it’s correct” pg. 81 - “the promise of business is to increase the general well being of humankind through service, a creative invention and ethical philosophy” pg. 81 - “given current corporate practices, not one wildlife reserve, wilderness, or indigenous culture will survive the global market economy” pg. 82 - Immune system breaking down for new borns - “it must fully acknowledge that the brilliant monuments of its triumph cast the darkest of shadows” pg. 84 - Business has three basic issues: o What it takes  Does it in a harmful way o What it makes  Excessive amounts of energy, toxins, and pollutants o What it wastes  Cause harm to present and future generations of all species - Solutions o Waste = food  Reclaimed, reused, or recycled o Nature runs off of current solar income  Sun o Nature depends on diversity  Nature is not mass produced - Gorden Sherman o “there is a teasing irony: we spend our lives evading our own redemption. And this is naturally so because something in us knows that to be fully human we must experience pain and loss. Therefore, we are at ceaseless effort to elude this high cost, whatever the price, until at last it overtakes us. And then in spite of ourselves we do realize our humanity. We are put in worthier possession of our souls. Then we look back and know that even our grief contained our blessing” pg. 89 The Death of Birth - “the ability to over exploit the earth’s stored-up supply of resources is what we call economic progress” pg.92 - Carry capacity - “the loss of evolutionary potential is being called the “death of birth” pg. 96 - “Once process of industrialization commence, the economic life of culture shifted from working with natural forces to working to overcome them” pg. 101 Land and Nature - “land is life itself for many indigenous peoples” pg. 10 Knowledge of the environment - “the rainforest is our university” pg. 106 Traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) - Patenting plants to preserve traditional knowledge Collective ownership - “they see it – and other resources like water, plants, and wild animals – as something belonging to the whole community” pg. 108 Spirit Realms - “human must live in harmony with the whole or suffer the consequences” pg. 108 Earth mothers: women and the natural world - “[B] racketing women with ‘nature’ brackets men with ‘culture’ and the therefore places men in a more powerful and superior position” pg. 109 Once were warriors - “Privatization has increased, and with it monetization – many traditional resources and goods have a price now, preferably in cash” pg. 110 But Beware too much romanticism - “Control over land is power in its purest and most basic form because it involves control over food, and therefore the means of survival” pg. 111 The importance of Staple Products - “Goods supplied by the home country enabled the migrant to maintain his standard of living and to make his adjustments to the new environment without serious loss” pg. 113 The Fur Trade - “The trade has been conducted by large organizations from the artificial and natural monopolies of new france to the north west company and the Hudson Bay Company which still occupies an important position. “ pg. 115 - Efficiency to transport was a major issue Democracy and Ecology - Chipko Movement o Defend forest resources and watersheds against commercial logging interests Short time Frames - Politics o Presidential elections are every 4-5 years, so they would need to campaign things that would get them elected, such as work force Consumerism over citizenship - Live in harmony with ecosystems Beyond The Local - National standard for air and water quality Southern Complexities - Poverty - Desperate to earn foreign exchange will not listen on ecological practice Eco – Democracy Reinventing Nature - Darwin o “gave industrial man and women the assurance they needed to prevail against a
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