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SOSC 2652 (17)
Chapter 5

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Social Science
SOSC 2652
Anna Pratt

Chapter 5- Police Strategies and Operations • This chapter discusses the key elements of community policing and the ways this model has influenced how the police organize and deliver their services across the country • The specific strategies the police use to prevent and respond to crime are examined The Evolution of Police Practise • The evolution of policing over the past century has been accompanied by changing philosophies as to the best way to respond to crime and social disorder • With the introduction of mobile police in the 1920s and 1930s, a traditional (or professional) model of policing emerged that was based on three Rs: random patrol, rapid response, and reactive investigating • Traditional model of policing- a model of police work that is reactive, incident-drven, and centred on random patrol • The central premise of random patrol, also known as the watch system, is that the mere presence and visibility of patrol cars serves as a deterrent to crime and at the same time makes citizens feel safer • Research studies have found that levels of crime are generally unaffected by increases in the number of patrol cars, quicker response times by patrol officers, or the number of arrests made by patrol officers • If the police only respond only when they are called and deal only with the incident at hand, the reasons why the incident occurred in the first place remain unaddressed and this increases the likelihood that similar incidents wll happen again • The emergence of modern-day community policing was due to the recognition that the police cannot prevent and respond to crime on their own; they require the assistance of variety of agencies and organiztions as well as community residents Community Policing • The 1980s witnessed the reemergence of an approach to policing that focused on the community • Community policing has its roots in Peel’s principles of Law Enforcement • Community Police- a philosophy management style and organizational strategy centred on police-community relationships and problem solving to address problems of crime and social disorder in communities • Community Policing has the following charecteristics • 1. It is an organizational strategy and philosophy- community policing is based on the idea that the police and the community have to work together as equal partners to identify, prioritize and solve problems with the goal of improving the quality of life • 2. It requires a department-wide commintment- All personnel in the police service must balance the need to maintain an effective police response to incidents of crime with the goal of exploring new proactive intiatives aimed at solving problems before they arise or escalate • 3. It rests on decentralizing and personalizing police services- decentralizing offers line officers the opportunity, freedom, and mandate to focus on community building and on community-based problem solving, so that each and every neighborhood can become a better place in which to live and work • Community policing involves substantial changes in the organization and delivery of police services The Principles of Community Policing Community policing is based on the three Ps, prevention, problem solving, and partnership (with the community) The key principle of community policing are • Citizens are responsible for actively involving themselves in identifying and responding to problems in their neighborhoods and communities • The community is a source of operational information and crime control knowledge for the police • Police are more directly accountable to the community • Police have a proactive and preventive role in the community that goes beyond traditional law enforcement • The cultural and gender mix of a police agency should reflect the community it serves • The operational structure of the police agency should facilitate broad consultation on strategic and policing issues Figuire 5.1- Police-Community Relations: Community Partnership versus Justice Process Justice process- Information from community to Identify witness’ and offenders- Bring offenders to court- Court Process- Community unlikely to be aware of what happens- Traditional Policing Traditional policing-community depends on police and justice system; no other resources mobilized outside the formal justice system Community Partnership- Meeting with communities to identify n
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