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Chapter

SOCI 1010 - Socialization (With Practice Questions)

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 1010
Professor
Deborah Davidson
Semester
Fall

Description
SOCI 1010 Oct. 8 2013 Socialization Definition English - individuals learning through interaction with others Textbook - "acquisition of knowledge, skills, and motivation to participate in social life" (80), acting as the “essential bridge between the individual and society” (82) Human Behaviour Nature – Biologically determined Nurture – Environmentally learned Epigenetics – concept that the environment modifies the way genes are expressed. This presents a new perspective to understand human behaviour, essentially destroying the existing nature vs. nurture debate Case study of Genie (1970)  Isolated individuals stress importance of socialization. Genie was found in 1970 at 13 years of age tied to a potty chair weighing 59 pounds and measuring 54 inches tall (4'6"). She was used to living in a very confined room, and had been accustomed to being tied up at night in a straitjacket. When found, she did not understand any language except for phrases similar to "stop that!" or "quiet!”. In addition, she was observed to walk with what researchers called a bunny like gait. Genie is important for a variety of reasons when considering the ethics of research, but in regards to socialization, Genie is an example of how, isolated from the normal process of socialization, one can become. SocializationTheories Learning/Behaviourist Classical  links response to known stimuli (Pavlov's dog) Instrumental  response not related to any known stimulus, rather response made based on outcome (Kid acting a certain way to achieve unknown reward) Limitations  Limited applicability to generalize animal behaviour to socialized humans, because, as the text states humans “have the capacity to share symbolic meanings and symbols in ways that animals cannot” (83). Psychoanalytic (Freudian) - Id, Ego, Superego together form consciousness - Early stages of development - Children motivated by sexual forces Limitations - Little/No conclusive empirical support Child Development (Erik Erikson & Jean Piaget) - Lifelong stages of development - Social structure and reasoning Symbolic Internationalist (Greatest influence on socialization) At the apex of SI theory are the internalized definitions, meanings, and interpretations of our interactions with others. Basic Assumptions: (Not really important) a) studied on a human level b) individual behaviour must be set in societal context c) born with potential to become social being d) social actors 'act' and 'react' George Herbert Mead – ‘I’ (compulsions) vs. ‘Me’ (generalized other) Charles Horton Cooley – ‘looking glass self’  We act according to how we think others see us. Functionalist Role and importance of socialization in society - reproduce itself through its individuals to maintain solidarity (Durkheim) Conflict Supported ideologies of dominant class used to sustain status quo and build a false consciousness within individuals. Example: Taught to work hard and achieve great supports capitalist economy that focuses on each individual pursuing own interests. Feminism - Gender roles both sexes are subjected to within the socialization process, creating social expectations related to one's sex Barbie - subordinate, compared to the action figure that is portrayed to be athletic or powerful, underscoring the society that created these dolls as inherently patriarchal and hegemonic. Primary/Secondary Socialization Agents Primary – Family acts as the primary socialization for individuals, as they are the initial humans one becomes familiar with. Family provides individual with fundamental values and beliefs, as well as emotional support. (Most of the time! ) Secondary –Secondary groups consist of one’s peer group, school, media, or church. Peer group - particularly strong in adolescence, this agent is constructed by variables such as gender and social class in which it serves to be an alternative to the family to gain new preferences, norms, and attitudes not presented within family. Schools Macro level – political socialization Micro – specialized knowledge not able to be taught at home (Really?) Conflict Link ’Hidden Curriculum’ - emphasize dominant societal values that underlie the economic structure such as competition and social hierarchy. Mass Media Good - Informative, entertaining, safety, social support Bad - Unethical values, obesity, celebrity obsession Re-Socialization & Aging Anticipatory Socialization – when individuals acquire certain values and orientations that they will probably need in their future. Example: Household chores  Workforce Re-socialization – old behaviours unlearned and new behaboirs acquired, causing tension between both ways. Example: Incarceration of individual for 25 years free individual – the individual who has served their sentence must relearn how to live, and merge with current society, which may have changed since they last were in it. Questions - STUDENT RESOURCES Multiple Choice 1) Your clas
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