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Chapter 12.1

CSD-2259 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12.1: Motor Speech Disorders, Phonation, Vocal Tract


Department
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course Code
CSD-2259
Professor
Sheila Temple
Chapter
12.1

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Motor Disorders
Speech production involves the rapid and fine-tuned coordination of many muscles and
muscle groups in a fluent, continuous manner. A difference in the onset of muscle
contractions of as little as 40 to 50 milliseconds can mean the difference between two
sounds.
A idiidual’s otrol oer the usular oordiatio ioled i produig speeh is
called speech motor control
What is a motor speech disorder?
o An impairment of speech production cause by defects of the neuromuscular
system, the motor control system, or both
A motor speech disorder does not result from other disorders
Language impairment and phonological disorders may co-occur with a motor speech
disorder
o Systems of speech production
Involves four major system, respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, and
articulatory systems
Utterances require stress assignment on some syllables and words
Respiratory system
Ingressive- going in
Egressive- going out
Pulmonary mechanism- creates airflow by pushing air out of the
lungs through the trachea, or windpipe, using various muscle
groups
o Most important for producing airflow
Regulates the inhalation-exhalation cycle for passive breathing
and for producing speech
Phonatory system
Humans produce speech sounds by modulating or changing the
airflow in various ways and at various points along the vocal tract
The phonatory system regulates the production of voice and
prosodic (intonational) aspects of speech
Subglottal air pressure sets the vocal folds into cycles of vibration
Resonatory system
Regulates the resonation, or vibration of the airflow as it moves
from the pharynx into the oral or nasal cavities
Resonance refers to the effect of the shape and size of the vocal
tract on sound quality
Velopharyngeal port- the opening between the velum (soft
palate) and the back of the pharynx wall
When the velum is raised, the velopharyngeal port is closed, air
flows out through and resonates only within the oral cavity
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