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Chapter 13.3

CSD-2259 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13.3: Conductive Hearing Loss, Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Otitis Media


Department
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course Code
CSD-2259
Professor
Sheila Temple
Chapter
13.3

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What are the defining characteristics of prevalent types of pediatric hearing losses?
o The outer and middle ear make up the conductive hearing mechanismconduct
the sound to the inner ear
o Damage to the outer or middle ear results in conductive hearing loss
o The inner ear is the sensory system where the actual sense of hearing is located
and the auditory nerve represents the neural portion
o Damage to either of these systems is collectively termed sensorineural hearing
loss
o A mixed hearing loss occurs if both conductive loss and sensorineural loss occur
simultaneously
o Conductive Hearing Loss
Defining characteristics
When sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer or
middle ear, the result is an attenuation or reduction of the sound
heard
This attenuation of sound is the defining characteristic of a
conductive hearing loss
Children who have a conductive hearing loss, whether it is
temporary or persistent, experience this attenuation of loudness
Bone conduction- transmits sound vibrations along the bones of
the skull
Conductive hearing loss generally causes a slight to moderate loss
of hearing in one or both ears
Impact is not severe because some sounds still travel to the
auditory processing system of the brain via bone conduction
Causes and risk factors
Children frequently experience conductive hearing loss
Wax buildup can occur frequently and block sound transmission
Malformations of the outer and middle ear can cause conductive
hearing loss
Some children are born with a malformed or absent external
auditory canal or a congenital blockage of the ear canal
The most common cause of conductive hearing loss in children is
middle ear inflammation or otitis media which results from a viral
or bacterial infection of the middle-ear space
Some estimates indicate that at least 70% of children experience
otitis media at least once and more than 40% experience
repeated otitis which may be an underestimation since some ear
infections have no symptoms
Otitis media typically begins when a child has an infectious
organism in the pharyngeal area
A Eustachian tube dysfunction results in a build up of negative
pressure behind the eardrum
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