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United States (205,882)
Chemistry (10)
CHEM 1030 (4)
Chapter 2

chem1030 chapter 2 notes: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1030
Professor
Marla Spergel
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and IonsAtomic Theory of Matter o The theory that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter reemerged in the early 19th century championed by John DaltonDaltons Postulates o Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms o All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements o Atoms of an element are not changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions o Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atomsLaw of Constant Composition Joseph Proust 17541826 o This is also known as the law of definite proportions states that the elemental composition of a pure substance never variesLaw of Conservation of Mass o The total mass of substances present at the end of a chemical process is the same as the mass of substances present before the process took placeThe electron o Streams of negatively charged particles were found to emanate from cathode tubes o J J Thompson is credited with their discovery 1897 8 Thompson measured the chargemass ratio of the electron to be 17610 coulombsgMillikan Oil Drop Experiment o Once the chargemass ratio of the electron was known determination of either the charge or the mass of an electron would yield the other o Robert Millikan University of Chicago determined the charge on the electron in 1909Radioactivitythe spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom o It was first observed by Henri Becquerel Marie and Pierre Curie also studied it o Three types of radiation were discovered by Ernest Rutherford particles particles rays
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