8:28 pm: introductory remarks by vp and senator john c. calhoun. Served in sc leg, house, senate, and vp twice. Sc issued ordinance of nullification against protective tariff. Argued that state could veto and refuse to enforce any law: the theory of federalism. Traveled us and claimed had system of federalism had promise. Said fed system separated national from state matters well. Nationalists (hamilton) said needed strong central gov. Madison (changed later to focus on states" rights) claimed that fed arrangement would protect liberty of citizens: federalism: a comparative perspective. National (hamilton and marshall) to states" rights (jefferson and calhoun) Constitution that est. and divides powers between national and subnational gov. Guarantees at least two levels of gov power. State gov can act constitutionally and free from national control in some areas. Factors that make people want to make a new gov.