RHETOR 103B Chapter 4: R103B Reading 1.31.2017 (1)

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8 Feb 2017

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Reading for 1/31/2017
Course in General Linguistics INTRODUCTION
Ferdinand de Saussure
Chapter 1
Linguistics passed through 3 stages
(1) Grammar
(2) Philology
(3) Comparative methodology between languages “comparative rhilology”
In 1870 scholars began to seek out the principles that govern the life of languages
- Linguistics owes origin to the study of the Romance and Germanic languages
- First impetus by American scholar whitney
- Then new school formed by the neogrammarians
Chapter 2
- Subject matter of linguistics comprises all manifestations of human speech
- Scope of linguistics
- (1) describe and trace history of all languages
- (2) determine forces permanently and universally at work in all languages
- (3) delimit and define itself
- Use of linguistics: important to general culture
- Task of linguist to condemn and dispel paradoxical consequences
Chapter 3
- What is language
- Both a social product of the faculty of speech and a collection of
necessary conventions that have been adopted by a social body to permit
individuals to exercise that faculty
- Self contained whole and a principle of classification
- Language gives unity to speech
- To understand clearly the role of the associative and coordinating faculty, need to
leave the individual act and approach the social act
- Language nevers requires premeditation
- Speaking is an individual act
- Summary of characteristics of language
- Well-defined object in the heterogeneous mass of speech facts
- Something we can study separately
- Language is homogeneous
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