Social Psych Exam 3 - Chapters 3, 6, & 10
Chapter 10: Relationships and Attraction
● Social Isolation Leads to Social Impairments
○ The rhesus monkeys in Harlow’s classic experiments, provided with mother surrogates
in the form of props resembling monkeys but otherwise reared in isolation, showed
significant social deficiencies in adolescence.
● Universality of Relationships
○ Siblings in different cultures all play, support, and fight with each other, although the
specific kinds of play, support, and conflict may vary according to the culture.
○ Parents in different cultures show similar kinds of attachment behaviors, including
patterns of touch and eye contact.
● The Need to Belong
○ Evolutionary basis for the need to belong → not only do elephant parents feed and
protect young elephants, but they teach them appropriate social behavior that enables
them to live in groups. If the young elephants grow up without adults, they are likely to
become antisocial and aggressive and have difficulty living groups.
● Communal relationship: a relationship in which the individuals feel a special responsibility for
one another and vie and receive according to the principle of need; such relationships are often
● Exchange relationship: a relationship in which individuals felt little responsibility toward one
another; giving and receiving are governed by concerns about equity and reciprocity; such
relationships are usually short term.
● Social exchange theory: a theory based on the idea that how people feel about a relationship
depends on their assessments of its costs and rewards.
● Comparison level: expectations about what people think they deserve or expect to get out of a
● Comparison level for alternatives: expectations about what people think they can get out of
○ Spending less time with someone and more time with someone else because of the
expected rewards and/or consequences that are likely to come from the relationships.
● Equity theory: a theory that maintains that people are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity, in
their relationship; a relationship is considered equitable when the benefits are proportionate to
the effort both people put into it.
● Attachment theory: the idea that early attachments with parents and other caregivers can shape
relationships for a person’s whole life.
● Types of Attachment
○ Secure → I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending
on them and having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or
about someone getting too close. ○ Avoidant → I am somewhat uncomfortable being close; I find it difficult to trust them
completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets
too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable
○ Anxious-ambivalent → I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I
often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t stay with me. I want to
merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.
● Anxiety dimension of attachment: a facet of attachment that captures the degree to which a
person is worried about rejection and abandonment by relationship partners.
● Avoidance dimension of attachment: a facet of attachment that captures the degree to which a
person is comfortable with intimacy and dependence on relationship partners.
● Looking back → Relationships are essential to daily social functioning. The need to belong is an
evolved, universal motive that shapes our thoughts and actions; if not satisfied, that need can
have highly negative consequences for our well-being. In communal relationships, generally long
term, people are concerned with each other’s needs; in contrast, exchange relationships,
generally short term, are governed by concerns over equity and reciprocity. According to social
exchange theory, people want interactions in which rewards exceed costs; satisfaction with