MAN-3240 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Clinical Psychology, Equity Theory, Distributive Justice

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16 Oct 2017
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Org Behavior Ch 5 Notes!
Need-Based Theories of Motivation !
-The earliest studies of motivation involved an examination of individual needs !
Four Main Theories: !
-Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs!
-ERG Theory !
-Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory!
-McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory !
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs!
-Accompanied by a pyramid that represents how human needs are ranked !
-Human beings have needs that are hierarchically ranked !
-There are some needs that are basic to all human beings, and in their absence, other needs
are not considered. !
-As we satisfy these basic needs, we start looking to satisfy higher-order needs !
-Once a lower-level need is satisfied, it not longer serves as a motivator. !
-Most basic needs are physiological needs (air, food, water) !
-Once those are satisfied, people worry about safety needs (danger, pain, uncertain future) !
-Then social needs refer to the need to bond with other human beings, to be loved, and to
form lasting attachments!
-The satisfaction of social needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem needs refer to
the desire to be respected by one’s peers, feeling important, and being appreciated !
-Highest level of hierarchy - self-actualization, referring to “becoming al your are capable of
becoming.” Acquiring new skills, taking on new challenges, behaving in a way that will lead
to the satisfaction of one’s life goals.!
-Maslow’s theory was not originally designed for work settings—he was a clinical
psychologist. !
-Understanding what people need gives us clues to understanding them !
-The hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the dierent needs employees may have
at any given point and explains dierent reactions they may have to similar treatment !
ERG Theory!
-Modification of Maslow’s Hierarchy. Instead of five needs hierarchically organized, basic
human needs may be grouped under 3 categories: existence, relatedness and growth. !
-Existence - physiological and safety !
-Relatedness - social needs !
-Growth - esteem and self-actualization !
-ERG doesn’t rank needs in order and explicitly recognizes that more than one need may
operate at a given time !
-Frustration-regression hypothesis: individuals who are frustrated in their attempts to satisfy
one need may regress to another. !
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