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BIOL 2083 (2)
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Chapter 16

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 2083
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Chapter 16 CarbohydratesVocabularyAldose a sugar that contains an aldehyde group as part of its structure Amylopectin a form of starch a branched chain polymer of glucose Amylose a form of starch a linear polymer of glucose Anomer one of the possible stereoisomers formed when a sugar assumes the cyclic formAnomeric Carbon the chiral center created when a sugar cyclizesCellulose a polymer of glucose an important structural material in plants Configuration the threedimensional arrangement of groups around a chiral carbon atom Deoxy Sugar a sugar in which one of the hydroxyl groups has been reduced to a hydrogen Diastereomers nonsuperimposable nonmirrorimage stereoisomers Disaccharide two monosaccharides monomeric sugars linked by a glycosidic bond Enantiomers mirrorimage nonsuperimposable stereoisomers Epimers stereoisomers that differ only in configuration around one of several chiral carbon atoms Fischer projection a twodimensional representation of the stereochemistry of threedimensional molecules Furanose a cyclic sugar with a sixmembered ring named for its resemblance to the ring system in furan Furanoside a glycoside involving a furanose Glucose a monosaccharide a ubiquitous metabolite Glyceraldehyde the simplest carbohydrate that contains a chiral carbon the starting point of a system of describing optical isomers Glycogen a polymer of glucose an important energy storage molecule in animals Glycoside a compound in which one or more sugars is bonded to another molecule Haworth Projection Formulas a perspective representation of the cyclic forms of sugars Hemiacetal a compound that is formed by reaction of an aldehyde with an alcohol and is found in the cyclic structure of sugars Hemiketal a compound that is formed by reaction of a ketone with an alcohol and is found in the cyclic structure of sugars Heteropolysaccharide a polysaccharide that contains more than one kind of sugar monomer Homopolysaccharide a polysaccharide that contains only one kind of sugar monomer Hyaluronic Acid a polysaccharide found in the lubricating fluid of joints Ketose a sugar that contains a ketone group as part of its structure Lignin a polymer of coniferyl alcohol a structural material found in woody plants Monosaccharide a compound that contains a single carbonyl group and two or more hydroxyl groups Mucopolysaccharide a polysaccharide that has a gelatinous consistency Oligosaccharide a few sugars linked by glycosidic bonds Pectin a polymer of galacturonic acid it occurs in the cell walls of plants Peptidoglycan a polysaccharide that contains peptide crosslinks it is found in bacterial cell walls Pyranose a cyclic form of a sugar containing a fivemembered ring it was named for its resemblance to pyran Pyranoside a glycoside involving a pyranose Reducing Sugar a sugar that has a free carbonyl group one that can react with an oxidizing agent Polysaccharide a polymer of sugarsStarch a polymer of glucose that plays an energystorage role in plantsChapter 16 CarbohydratesChapter SummaryWhat is unique about the structures of sugars The simplest examples of carbohydrates are monosaccharides compounds that each contain a single carbonyl group and two or more hydroxyl groups Monosaccharides frequently encountered in biochemistry are sugars that contain from three to seven carbon atoms Sugars contain one or more chiral centers the configurations of the possible stereoisomers can be represented by Fischer projection formulasWhat happens if a sugar forms a cyclic molecule Sugars exist predominantly as cyclic molecules rather than in an openchain form Haworth projection formulas are more realistic representations of the cyclic forms of sugars than are Fischer projection formulas Many stereoisomers are possible for five and sixcarbon sugars but only a few of the possibilities are encountered frequently in natureWhat are some oxidationreduction reactions of sugars Monosaccharides can undergo various reactions Oxidation reactions make up one important group What are some important esterification reactions of sugars Esterification of sugars to phosphoric acid plays an important role in metabolismWhat are glycosides and how do they form The most important reaction of sugars by far is the formation of glycosidic linkages which give rise to oligosaccharides and polysaccharidesWhat are some other important derivatives of sugars Amino sugars are the basis of cell wall structuresWhat makes sucrose an important compound Three important examples of oligosaccharides are the disaccharides sucrose lactose and maltose Sucrose is common table sugar It is a disaccharide formed when a glycosidic bond forms between glucose and fructoseAre any other disaccharides important to us Lactose occurs in milk and maltose is obtained via the hydrolysis of starch
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